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Building Cohesion in Walsall. Ted Cantle Institute of Community Cohesion Associate Director IDeA. What Was Found in 2001. Polarised and segregated communities Parallel lives Ignorance, fear and demonisation Lack of honesty and openness Lack of leadership and values

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building cohesion in walsall

Building Cohesion in Walsall

Ted Cantle

Institute of Community Cohesion

Associate Director IDeA

what was found in 2001
What Was Found in 2001
  • Polarised and segregated communities
  • Parallel lives
  • Ignorance, fear and demonisation
  • Lack of honesty and openness
  • Lack of leadership and values
  • Many initiatives, but also part of the problem
but the world continues to change
But the world continues to change
  • In 1965 75m people lived outside home country, now 180m do so.
  • 600,000 Brits now live in Spain; 1st and 2nd homes in Croatia, S Africa, Bulgaria etc
  • 25m tourists to UK and millions from UK to ever widening list of countries
  • And globalisation in many forms, students, business, brands, internet, etc
  • Yet, riots in UK, France, Australia etc
and so does multicultural britain
And so does multicultural Britain
  • 4.6 million BME people, many 2nd/3rd generation; 9% England; 13.6% Walsall
  • Settlement Pattern little changed in 40 years, 50% BME in London – with other areas still mono-cultural
  • London over 300 languages in schools
  • New EU immigration (and from elsewhere)
  • Little information since 2001
the changing face of multiculturalism
The Changing Face of Multiculturalism
  • Proper response to racism/discrimination
  • Multicultural model no longer adequate
  • Focussed on difference not commonalities
  • Differences between BME groups too
  • More change will come from ethnic conflict, war, economic trends - and climate change
and identity politics
And Identity Politics
  • Diaspora and transnational identities
  • Competing claims of belonging
  • Faith and other ‘difference’
  • Played out in local communities; grants, community centres, representation etc
  • New approaches, based on norms and values, transcending ‘identity
are we sleepwalking into segregation
Are We ‘Sleepwalking Into Segregation’?
  • Some encouraging signs in predominantly white areas – but still insularity
  • And ‘concentration’ of groups increasing due to ‘white flight’, natural growth and immigration.
  • Polarised communities
  • school segregation growing in some areas
  • Does spatial ‘segregation’ matter – can it be counter-balanced by other domains?
white flight and bme growth 1991 2001
White Flight and BME Growth 1991-2001
  • Birmingham: -90,000; +58,000
  • Manchester : -43,000; +15,000
  • Bristol: -17,000; +8,000
  • Liverpool: -37,000; +4,000
  • Leicester: -19,000; +19,000
  • London: -340,000; +600,000

is it social class, natural change; or parental choice; and ‘black flight’? And since 2001?

do we manage new settlement
Do We Manage New Settlement?
  • Resource conflicts are real - attitudes and fear of difference also real
  • Does increasing diversity undermine solidarity - can we/should we manage identity as part of ‘settlement’?
  • Does separate provision reinforce separation in an attempt to capacity build and promote cultural difference?
  • Whose role is this anyway?
the challenge of cohesion
The Challenge of Cohesion
  • To break down segregated communities – and the ‘fear of difference’
  • A new agenda, need to embed
  • With less initiatives, more mainstream
  • New sub-regional (and national) groupings
  • and new structures – DCLG and the New Commission
  • CEHR and new infrastructure
new architecture at a local level
New Architecture at a Local Level?
  • The history of RECs
  • New arrangements under CEHR?
  • High level strategic partnership
  • Context of poverty and deprivation or wider view? Clear Vision.
  • Clear strategy and plan – in LAAs, but integrated into mainstream services and voluntary sector activities
within a political context
Within a political context
  • Growth of far right (in the West Midlands)
  • Other extremism
  • Moral or political issue?or business drivers
  • Cross sector alliances
  • Communications programme and toolkit
  • Balance between neighbourhoods and corporate vision
performance indicators and intelligence
Performance Indicators and Intelligence
  • Community cohesion indicators – knowing what local people think – perceptions
  • Hate crime, tensions and disputes
  • Investing in positive relationships
  • And tackling inequality
  • Service planning – not just minorities and within minorities
information and intelligence
Information and Intelligence
  • Crime and disorder – community tensions
  • A different view from young people on the street and in schools
  • The direction of the ‘choice agenda’
  • Civil renewal and democratic engagement, not taken hold
  • Population churn and impact upon ‘Social Capital’ – and interaction
understanding social capital
Understanding Social Capital
  • The institutional and social networks which enable communities to function collectively
  • But what ‘capital’ exists now?
  • Is it affected by popn. ‘churn’ and by diversity?
  • How do we build it & create ‘bridging’ social capital?
  • What layers are there – institutions, civil and formal and informal social - and who uses them?
developing mixed communities
Developing Mixed Communities
  • Planning mixed communities…or
  • …for ‘people like us’?
  • Not just about tenure or facilities
  • Catering for social and psychological needs…in ‘sustainable communities’
  • Developing Shared Spaces – leisure, shopping, libraries, sports, arts, festivals
  • External and internal spaces
parallel lives
Parallel Lives
  • physical segregation of housing estates and inner city areas cities compounded by separate educational arrangements, community and voluntary bodies, employment, places of worship, language, social and cultural networks
  • no contact between different communities – compound ‘layers of separation’
  • The response – intelligent clustering. All communities need support networks
the role of community leaders
The Role of Community Leaders
  • Making change, or hanging on to power and reinforcing divisions
  • Structural changes and funding regimes to incentivise people and orgs to co-operate and to develop cross cultural programmes
  • Being representative – and representative of whom
  • Focus on White/LTR, not just BME
action in local communities
Action in Local communities ….
  • Community Plan – vision for area
  • Employment – new labour market, changing skills and needs
  • Education – review admissions/change parental perceptions, promote mixed intakes; twinning; joint teaching; Citizenship Education
  • Housing – lettings and development programmes (and ‘Sustainable Communities’), and private sector too
action in local communities1
Action in Local Communities …..
  • Press and media – communications
  • Police and community safety
  • Youth – resources and cross-cultural
  • Sport, Leisure and Culture - opportunity
  • Health, services and organisation
  • Faith, the voluntary sector generally
  • LSCs, colleges and HE
interaction to break down barriers
Interaction – to break down barriers

Examples

  • School twinning
  • Sports and arts programmes
  • Inter-faith networks
  • Youth projects
  • Older people – visits, cookery, dance
  • Civil society – school governors, councillors etc

Shared experiences to develop understanding, trust and shared values

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Multiculturalism has not failed but need commonalities and cross cultural contact
  • Leadership and Vision
  • Developing new approaches – breaking down segregation, promoting ‘integration’ and mixed communities
  • But building upon success
contact details

Contact Details

ted.cantle@idea.gov.uk

Institute of Community Cohesion