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PHYS16 – Lecture 15. Ch. 7 Work and Energy. Ch. 7 Work and Energy. Mechanical Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Work Constant Force → Dot Product Variable Force → Integral Work-Mechanical Energy theorem. Cheat Sheet. Mechanical Energy Potential Energy, Gravitational

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phys16 lecture 15

PHYS16 – Lecture 15

Ch. 7 Work and Energy

ch 7 work and energy
Ch. 7 Work and Energy
  • Mechanical Energy
    • Potential Energy
    • Kinetic Energy
  • Work
    • Constant Force → Dot Product
    • Variable Force → Integral
  • Work-Mechanical Energy theorem
cheat sheet
Cheat Sheet
  • Mechanical Energy
    • Potential Energy, Gravitational
    • Potential Energy, Spring
    • Kinetic Energy
  • Work
    • Constant Force
    • Variable Force
  • Work-Energy Theorem
work mechanical energy theorem1
Work – Mechanical Energy Theorem
  • Work = the transfer of Energy
  • Energy = the ability to do work

Work done by system

is negative

zero of potential energy
Zero of Potential Energy
  • Wherever you set your zero point for potential energy will determine your coordinate system
    • U=0 J at y=0 point for gravitational pot. energy
    • U=0 J at equilibrium point for spring pot. Energy
  • All calculations of ΔU will be relative so it won’t matter where you put 0 J just make sure not to switch back and forth!!!
what is the change in potential energy of this system
What is the change in potential energy of this system?

Assume x=0 at Equilibrium point then…

http://sparknotes.com

what is the change in potential energy of this system1
What is the change in potential energy of this system?

Approach #1

Assume x=0 at Equilibrium point then…

Approach #2

Assume x=0 at ground then…

http://sparknotes.com

Accounting for zero point

not at equilibrium

work and spring potential energy
Work and spring potential energy
  • If mass on a spring moves, how much work is done by spring?
  • Use work-energy theorem to derive spring potential energy

Work done by system

is negative

Force and displacement

are in opposite directions

work and kinetic energy
Work and Kinetic energy
  • If an object speeds up, how much work is done on object?
  • Use work-energy theorem to derive kinetic energy

Assume K=mv2/2

and prove left side =

right side

Just multiply and divide

by dt since dt/dt=1

Now take derivative and

remember to use chain

rule

energy pre question
Energy Pre-question
  • A force F is used to raise a 4-kg mass from the ground to a height of 5 m, as shown in the diagram below. What is the work done by the force F? Ignore friction and assume the rope and pulleys are massless.
    • 50 J
    • 100 J
    • 174 J
    • 200 J
    • None of the above

θ = 60 degrees

F

mass

energy pre question1
Energy pre-question
  • A projectile is shot at an angle of θ with an initial speed of v0. What is the kinetic energy of the projectile at the top of the arc?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E) None of the above

energy pre question2
Energy pre-question
  • Some forces in nature depend on the inverse-square of the distance between objects (1/r2). If you were to calculate the potential for this force it would depend on:
    • 1/r
    • 1/r3
    • r
    • r2
    • None of the above
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Mechanical Energy
    • Potential Energy, Gravitational
    • Potential Energy, Spring
    • Kinetic Energy
  • Work
    • Constant Force
    • Variable Force
  • Work-Mechanical Energy Thereom
slide16
1.
  • A projectile is shot out by a rail gun. Assume that the projectile starts from a resting position at the right end of the gun, and that the armature applies a constant force of 3.0 N to a projectile with a mass of 0.06 kg. How long will it take for the projectile to move 1.0 m?

A) 0.02 s

B) 0.04 s

C) 0.2 s

D) 0.4 s

E) None of the above.

slide17
2.
  • If a projectile is shot near the surface of the Earth with a speed of 2.0 km/s horizontally, how far will it fall in 0.010 s?

A) 4.9E-4 m

B) 4.9E-2 m

C) 9.8E-2 m

D) 2.0E1 m

E) None of the above

slide18
3.
  • If a projectile with a mass of 0.10 kg accelerates from a resting position to a speed of 10 m/s in 2 s, what is the force supplied by the gun to the projectile?

A) 0.50 N

B) 2.5 N

C) 5.0 N

D) 10.0 N

E) None of the above

slide19
4.
  • If a 0.50 kg projectile is launched straight up and is given an initial velocity of 31.6 m/s, what will be the maximum height that the projectile will rise? (Note: assume air resistance is negligible.)

A) 26 m

B) 51 m

C) 102 m

D) 204 m

E) None of the above

slide20
5.
  • A 7N force and an 11N force act on an object at the same time. Which of the following CANNOT be the magnitude of the sum of these forces?

A) 2 N

B) 8 N

C) 12 N

D) 18 N

E) All of the values are possible

slide21
6.
  • A block of mass, m, is pulled across a rough floor by a rope that exerts a force T on the block. The rope is at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. The frictional force between the floor and the block is F. Which of the following expressions equals the frictional force F when the block moves with a constant speed?

A) T

B) mg-T

C) T sin(θ)

D) T cos(θ)

E) None of the above

slide22
7.
  • An object is sliding at a constant speed of 10 m/s across a level surface. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface is 0.7, which of the following statements correctly describes the forces acting on the object:

A) Friction is the only horizontal force acting on the object.

B) There is no net horizontal force acting on the object.

C) There are no vertical forces acting on the object.

D) The net horizontal force acting on the object causes it to accelerate.

E) None of the above.

slide23
8.
  • When designing his experiment to measure the acceleration of gravity, g, Galileo could have allowed spheres to drop from a height of 10 m rather than using a 10-m inclined plane. The main advantage to using the inclined plane is that on the inclined plane the:

A) final velocity of a sphere is smaller

B) final velocity of a sphere is larger

C) spheres take longer to reach bottom

D) spheres take less time to reach bottom

E) final velocity of a sphere is zero

slide24
9.
  • Two blocks of equal mass are connected by a mass-less horizontal rope and resting on a frictionless table. When one of the blocks is pulled away by a horizontal external force, F, what is the ratio of the net forces acting on the blocks?

A) 1:1

B) 1:1.41

C) 1:2

D) 0

E) None of the above

example of essay question
Example of Essay Question
  • List three simple tools that give a person mechanical advantage and tell how each one works. In lieu of an essay on how the tool provides a mechanical advantage you can estimate some parameters for the tool and run the numbers on what the mechanical advantage would be.