Markus’ Model of the Self • Self-Schema - What is it? • Markus (1977) - • Study 1 • Me not me ratings • Me not me latencies • Behavioral Evidence • Predicting Likelihood of behavior • Study 2 - false feedback study • Self-Schemas and processing information about others - Markus, Smith, and Moreland (1985)
Markus’ Model (cont.) • The Working Self-Concept - Markus & Kunda (1986) • Possible Selves - building blocks for self-schemas • How you • Hope to be • Expect to be • Fear to be • Importance of Balance • Study of Juvenile Delinquents • Culture and the organization of the self
Self-Esteem • Self-Esteem and self-clarity • Self-Esteem and self-serving strategies • Self-esteem and self-attributes (Dodgson & Wood, 1998) • Self-esteem and social comparisons - Wood, Giordano-Beech, Taylor, Michela, & Gaus (1994) • Self-esteem and views of relationship partners - Murray and Holmes research
Explanation of Esteem Differences in Self-Serving Tendencies • Self-Verification Theory - • We try to maintain our views of ourselves even if they are negative - Swann, La Ronde, & Hixon (1994) • May be more true for long-term reactions than short-term affective reactions, Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines (1987) • Self-Enhancement - • Low self-esteem people don’t enhance because they are trying to protect their fragile sense of self-esteem • Steele, Josephs, & Spencer
Self-Image Maintenance Models • Self-Evaluation Maintenance • Closeness and self-relevance • Tesser & Smith (1980) - Do you help your friend or a stranger? • Self-Affirmation • Maintain an overall sense of global self-integrity • Tesser & Cornell (1991) • Terror Management • People exaggerate their feelings about themselves as a buffer against their fear of death • Mortality salience and derogation of others
Global Self-Integrity + + + - - + + A Model of the Self-System Specific Attributes include: beliefs, values, attachments, relationships, attitudes, social comparisons, and abilities. People will restore their self-integrity through whatever means is strongest and most salient.
The Self and Others in Evaluation • Using the self to judge others • Dunning and Cohen (1992) - How other people are doing depends on how I am doing. • Dunning and Hayes (1996) - Evaluating others activates self-attributes • Using others to evaluate the self • Social Comparison theory • Lockwood & Kunda (1997) - How good of an accounting student are you?