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Markus’ Model of the Self
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  1. Markus’ Model of the Self • Self-Schema - What is it? • Markus (1977) - • Study 1 • Me not me ratings • Me not me latencies • Behavioral Evidence • Predicting Likelihood of behavior • Study 2 - false feedback study • Self-Schemas and processing information about others - Markus, Smith, and Moreland (1985)

  2. Me/Not Me Ratings

  3. Me Latencies

  4. Not Me Latencies

  5. Behavioral Evidence

  6. Predicting the Likelihood of Behavior

  7. Markus’ Model (cont.) • The Working Self-Concept - Markus & Kunda (1986) • Possible Selves - building blocks for self-schemas • How you • Hope to be • Expect to be • Fear to be • Importance of Balance • Study of Juvenile Delinquents • Culture and the organization of the self

  8. The Working Self-Concept in Action-Markus & Kunda Uniqueness Words

  9. The Working Self-Concept in Action-Markus & Kunda Similarity Words

  10. Self-Esteem • Self-Esteem and self-clarity • Self-Esteem and self-serving strategies • Self-esteem and self-attributes (Dodgson & Wood, 1998) • Self-esteem and social comparisons - Wood, Giordano-Beech, Taylor, Michela, & Gaus (1994) • Self-esteem and views of relationship partners - Murray and Holmes research

  11. Dodgson & Wood (1998)

  12. Wood et al., (1994)

  13. Explanation of Esteem Differences in Self-Serving Tendencies • Self-Verification Theory - • We try to maintain our views of ourselves even if they are negative - Swann, La Ronde, & Hixon (1994) • May be more true for long-term reactions than short-term affective reactions, Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines (1987) • Self-Enhancement - • Low self-esteem people don’t enhance because they are trying to protect their fragile sense of self-esteem • Steele, Josephs, & Spencer

  14. Swann, La Ronde, & Hixon (1994)

  15. Steele, Josephs, & Spencer

  16. Self-Image Maintenance Models • Self-Evaluation Maintenance • Closeness and self-relevance • Tesser & Smith (1980) - Do you help your friend or a stranger? • Self-Affirmation • Maintain an overall sense of global self-integrity • Tesser & Cornell (1991) • Terror Management • People exaggerate their feelings about themselves as a buffer against their fear of death • Mortality salience and derogation of others

  17. Tesser & Smith (1980)

  18. Tesser & Cornell (1991)

  19. Global Self-Integrity + + + - - + + A Model of the Self-System Specific Attributes include: beliefs, values, attachments, relationships, attitudes, social comparisons, and abilities. People will restore their self-integrity through whatever means is strongest and most salient.

  20. The Self and Others in Evaluation • Using the self to judge others • Dunning and Cohen (1992) - How other people are doing depends on how I am doing. • Dunning and Hayes (1996) - Evaluating others activates self-attributes • Using others to evaluate the self • Social Comparison theory • Lockwood & Kunda (1997) - How good of an accounting student are you?

  21. Dunning & Hayes (1996)

  22. Lockwood & Kunda (1997)