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##### Gases

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**Gases**Chap. 14**Pressure/Volume Relationship**A. Boyle’s Experiment http://library.mtroyal.ca/subguides/physics.htm**Boyle’s Experiment**• Boyle put mercury in a ‘J tube’ in a way that tapped a sample of gas in the short side. http://quiz2.chem.arizona.edu/preproom/**Boyle’s Experiment**• Boyle put mercury in a ‘J tube’ in a way that tapped a sample of gas in the short side. • Boyle recorded pressure and volume data. His table may have looked like this: http://quiz2.chem.arizona.edu/preproom/**Boyle’s Experiment**• Boyle put mercury in a ‘J tube’ in a way that tapped a sample of gas in the short side. • Boyle recorded pressure and volume data. His table may have looked like this: http://quiz2.chem.arizona.edu/preproom/**Boyle’s Experiment**• Boyle put mercury in a ‘J tube’ in a way that tapped a sample of gas in the short side. • Boyle recorded pressure and volume data. His table may have looked like this: http://quiz2.chem.arizona.edu/preproom/**Pressure/Volume Relationship**A. Boyle’s Experiment B. Graph**Pressure/Volume Relationship**A. Boyle’s Experiment B. Graph**Pressure/Volume Relationship**A. Boyle’s Experiment B. Graph C. Equation P1∙ V1= P2 ∙ V2**Pressure/Volume Relationship**• A. Boyle’s Experiment • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation Less space means the collisions will occur _____ _________ and pressure will _______.**Pressure/Volume Relationship**• A. Boyle’s Experiment • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation • Calculations**Self Check – Ex. 1**A 600 mL balloon has a pressure of 1.20 atm. What is the new pressure when it’s compressed to 400 mL? Assume constant temperature.**Self Check – Ex. 2**An oxygen container has a volume of 16 L and a pressure of 480 kPa. What volume would the gas occupy if the pressure were 120 kPa? Assume constant temperature.**Temperature/Volume Relationship**A. Charles’ Experiment http://geocities.yahoo.com.br/saladefisica3/**Temperature/Volume Relationship**A. Charles’ Experiment B. Graph**Temperature/Volume Relationship**A. Charles’ Experiment B. Graph**Temperature/Volume Relationship**A. Charles’ Experiment B. Graph extrapolate the data**Temperature/Volume Relationship**A. Charles’ Experiment B. Graph C. Equation V1V2 = T1 T2**Temperature/Volume Relationship**• A. Charles’ Experiment • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation Increasing the _________ causes the particles to move faster. More motion means they need more _______.**Temperature/Volume Relationship**• A. Charles’ Experiment • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation • Calculations**Self Check – Ex. 3**A sample of gas has a volume of 8 L when the temperature is 300 K. At what temperature would the gas volume be 12 L? Assume constant pressure.**Self Check – Ex. 4**What is the new volume of a 125 cm3 gas sample that is heated from -23oC to 227oC? Assume constant pressure.**Temperature/Pressure Relationship**A. Gay-Lussac’s Law http://www.br-online.de/**Temperature/Pressure Relationship**A. Gay-Lussac’s Law B. Graph**Temperature/Pressure Relationship**A. Gay-Lussac’s Law B. Graph C. Equation P1P2 = T1T2**Temperature/Pressure Relationship**• A. Gay-Lussac’s Law • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation Increasing the _________ causes the particles to move faster. More collisions equates to more ________.**Temperature/Pressure Relationship**• A. Gay-Lussac’s Law • B. Graph • C. Equation • Explanation • Calculations**Self Check – Ex. 5**When the temperature of a gas goes from 250K to 300 K, the pressure of the gas goes from 800 torr to _____. Assume constant volume.**Combined gas law**A. Combines three gas laws**Combined gas law**A. Combines three gas laws B. Equation P1 ∙ V1 P2 ∙ V2 = T1T2**Combined gas law**• A. Combines three gas laws • B. Equation • Calculations**Ideal Gas Law**A. Variables that affect pressure**Ideal Gas Law**A. Variables that affect pressure B. Equation PV = nRT**Ideal Gas Law**• A. Variables that affect pressure • B. Equation • Ideal Gas Constant atm · L R = 0.0821 mol · K**Ideal Gas Law**• A. Variables that affect pressure • B. Equation • Ideal Gas Constant • Calculations**Self Check – Ex. 6**What is the pressure of 10 moles of helium in a 20 L container at a temperature of 27o C?**Self Check – Ex. 7**What is the temperature of 2.4 mole of gas at a pressure of 720 mmHg and a volume of 2.4 L?**Gas Stoichiometry**A. When any gas is at STP its molar volume is L/mol.**Gas Stoichiometry**A. When any gas is at STP its molar volume is 22.4 L/mol.**Self Check – Ex. 8**How many liters of SO2 will be formed when 16 L of SO3 decomposes. Assume all gases are at STP. 2SO3 2SO2 + O2**Gas Stoichiometry**A. When any gas is at STP its molar volume is 22.4 L/mol.**Gas Stoichiometry**• When any gas is at STP its molar volume is 22.4 L/mol. • To find volume of gas when it’s not at STP. mol unknown Mass known**Gas Stoichiometry**• When any gas is at STP its molar volume is 22.4 L/mol. • To find volume of gas when it’s not at STP. mol unknown Mass known Stoich.**Gas Stoichiometry**• When any gas is at STP its molar volume is 22.4 L/mol. • To find volume of gas when it’s not at STP. Tunknown Punknown mol unknown Mass known vol. unknown Stoich.