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Roman Republic Building an Empire
Romulus & Remus • According to legend, King Numitor was overthrown by his brother. The king’s daughter, Silvia was imprisoned in the Temple to Mars, god of War. • There she gave birth to twins, Romulus and Remus. The new king ordered the twins to be drowned in the Tiber River but they were rescued by a wolf. • The boys were later adopted by a shepherd, named Faustus. • When the boys grew up they met their grandfather and planned to avenge him. They raised an arm and overthrew the king.
Reme or Rome? • To commemorate their victory, the brothers planned to build a city along the banks of the Tiber River where the wolf had found them. • There were 7 hills in this area. Romulus and Remus fought over which hill to build the city upon and what to name of this new city • When Remus made fun of the wall that Romulus was building, the fighting increased and Remus was killed. • The city was named Rome after the surviving brother.
Task #1 • Turn to your shoulder partner. • One of you will tell the other the story, you just heard. • The other one will listen quietly and then fill in any details that the other person missed. • What 3 facts do you think is most important to remember about this legend of the founding of Rome? Write them down in your notes.
Etruscans • By 600 BCE Rome had grown to become a powerful city state. • It relied on trade with groups around the city—most importantly the Etruscans. • The Etruscans shared many Greek ideas with the Romans: • Alphabet • Toga • Architecture (like the arch) • Sewage systems • Chariot Racing
Republic! • Early Rome was ruled by 7 kings. • In 509 BCE, the last king (an Etruscan) was overthrown by a group of Roman aristocrats • Rather than crown their own king, the aristocrats decided to create a new kind of government, called a republic. • A republic is a type of government in which citizens have the right to vote select their leaders. Leaders rule in the name of people.
Task #2 • On your map of Europe, draw in the beginnings of the Roman Empire. This marks the first stage of Rome’s expansion.
Punic Wars • To become a leading power in the Mediterranean, Rome had to defeat the Phoenicians and their powerful stronghold of Carthage. • What do we know about the Phoenicians?
1st Punic War • Carthage and Rome fought for 23 years over control of Sicily • Rome’s strength: army • Carthage’s strength: navy • Rome’s solution – build up its navy • Rome’s new weapon – grappling hook • Lashed ships together • Rome won – Sicily became a province of Rome
2nd Punic War • Carthage regained its strength and became a world power again. • General Hannibal wanted to keep Rome from threatening Carthage’s trade. He gathered 35,000 soldiers and 37 elephants in Spain. • Challenge: Rome is not along the ocean and Rome now has a navy. How is Hannibal going to attack Rome? • Leads army from Spain, through southern France and the Alps, to invade Italy from the north. • What would you do if you were leading Roman forces? How would you defeat Hannibal?
Scipio Afrikaunus • Rome’s general, Scipio, developed a surprising counter-offensive. He attacks Carthage itself. • Hannibal is forced to choose whether he tries to take Rome or save his home city. • Hannibal was defeated at the Battle of Zama, Northern Africa. • Carthage had to pay heavy fines to Rome, give up all their new colonies in Spain and sign a treaty promising never to fight another war without Rome’s permission.
Results OF the punic Wars • Carthage became a Roman colony/province in North Africa • Rome went on to conquer Greece, which had been an ally of Carthage. • Rome was the only superpower and went on to conquer western Europe and the Mediterranean.
Task #3 • On your map draw in the lands Rome takes after defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars.