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CURRICULUM / INSTRUCTION / ASSESSMENT. C/I/A- 1. DATA. DATA. DATA. DATA. DATA. Instructional Leadership Development Framework for Data-driven Systems. CULTURE. Learner-Centered. High Expectations. Curriculum/Instruction/ Assessment. Organizational Management. Supervision. QUALITY

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CURRICULUM / INSTRUCTION / ASSESSMENT


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    1. CURRICULUM / INSTRUCTION / ASSESSMENT C/I/A-1

    2. DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA Instructional Leadership Development Frameworkfor Data-driven Systems CULTURE Learner-Centered High Expectations Curriculum/Instruction/ Assessment Organizational Management Supervision QUALITY STUDENT PERFORMANCE Communication and Community Partnerships Professional Development Collaborative Continuous Improvement ETHICS AND INTEGRITY C/I/A-2

    3. Lone Star Middle School Data Review • Review and analyze the additional data on pages 18 through 21. • Discuss at your table what the data indicates. C/I/A-3

    4. • Observe a meeting of the facilitator presenting assessment data to the site-based decision-making team. • Record some observations from the video. Lone Star Middle School Site-Based Decision-Making Committee C/I/A-4

    5. Lone Star Middle School Data Review • Review and analyze the additional data on pages 9 and 14. • Discuss at your table what the data indicates. C/I/A-5

    6. Lone Star Middle School Social Studies Department Meeting • Observe a meeting of the social studies department as performance data is discussed. • Jot down some of your observations. C/I/A-6

    7. Continuous Improvement Process • Needs Assessment • Data collection • Analysis Goals & Objectives Summative Evaluation Quality Ongoing Formative Evaluation Strategies & Activities Student Performance • Implementation • Who? • What? • What do we need? Professional Development & Sustained Support C/I/A-7

    8. Continuous Improvement Planning Process Data Sources for Data-driven Decision-making Quality Student Performance Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment Supervision Professional Development Communication and Community Partnerships Organizational Management C/I/A-8

    9. Premises • Curriculum, instruction and assessment must be learner-centered and aligned to be effective. • Ensuring that all Texas students master the state-adopted curriculum is a critical teaching responsibility. C/I/A-9

    10. Objectives • The participant will be able to: • Use multiple data sources to analyze and make decisions about curriculum, instruction, and assessment to support continuous improvement • Develop an understanding of learner-centered curriculum, instruction, and assessment and be able to articulate it C/I/A-10

    11. Objectives (continued) • Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections • Varied Needs and Characteristics of All Levels • Assessing Student Progress • Alignment of Learning Objectives • Recognize learner-centered instructional decisions that address four critical elements: • • Develop an awareness of multiple instructional strategies to meet the various needs of all learners C/I/A-11

    12. Teaching and Learning are complex processes composed of many elements. C/I/A-12

    13. Instruction: How (lesson attributes, designs, strategies) Curriculum: What (state, district, campus, teacher) Quality Student Performance Assessment: To what extent (state, district, campus, teacher) C/I/A-13

    14. A Shift in Teaching and Learning The Texas Perspective • Working at your table and using the items in the envelope marked, “The Texas Perspective on the Shift in Teaching and Learning,” categorize the items under the headings DECREASE and INCREASE. • Be prepared to discuss as a whole group. C/I/A-14

    15. Decrease • Isolation • Learning is other-directed • Sort and select students • Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic • A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails • Whole-class instruction dominates • Tests for pieces of learning • Learning bits of information • Time driven • A single form of assessment • Assessment most common at end of learning Increase • Collaboration and communication • Learning is self-directed • All students will learn • Student differences are studied as a basis for planning • A focus on multiple forms of intelligences is evident • Many instructional arrangements are used • Assess for continuous improvement • Learning is relevant and connected to life and other disciplines • Results driven • Multiple forms of assessment are used • Assessment ongoing and diagnostic A Shift in Teaching and Learning Texas Perspective on the Shift in Teaching and Learning —Adapted from various Texas Education Agency documents C/I/A-15

    16. 3-2-1 Strategy 1) Recall your “special student.” 2) Select 3 practices that you feel would positively impact your student. 3) Discuss 2 of the practices with a partner. 4) Highlight the 1 practice that you feel would have the potential for the most positive impact on your student. C/I/A-16

    17. Lesson Attributes • Objectives and Goals • Engagement and Motivation • Connections and Relevance • Questioning and Inquiry • Feedback and Reinforcement • Monitoring and Assessment • Application C/I/A-17

    18. Lesson Attributes Objectives and Goals The teacher knows what he/she wants the students to know and be able to do at the end of the lesson. Objectives are clear, specific, and include basic knowledge/skills and central themes/concepts of the discipline. C/I/A-18

    19. Lesson Attributes Engagement and Motivation Research makes it clear that all information taken into the brain must first pass an “attentional” threshold. The student must be engaged and interested in the new learning in order to be self-directed/intrinsically motivated and successful in learning. C/I/A-19

    20. Lesson Attributes Connections and Relevance New learning must build on prior knowledge, the “hook” on which to hang the new. Teachers will be most successful when they can connect new information to prior knowledge and to various disciplines, as well as make the learning relevant to the lives and interests of the learners. C/I/A-20

    21. Lesson Attributes Questioning and Inquiry The key to “minds-on” learning and a strong check for understanding is effective questioning and inquiry, both by the teacher and by the student. Instruction should be student-focused, inquiry-based, and directed to students as thinkers and problem solvers. C/I/A-21

    22. Lesson Attributes Feedback and Reinforcement Timely, specific, quality feedback helps students understand why they are successful or unsuccessful in learning and results in a higher level and frequency of student commitment to the learning. Students are then able to repeat their effort and succeed or make adjustments in order to be more successful. Reinforcing prior learning helps students retain knowledge and extend learning as they apply skills in multiple contexts. C/I/A-22

    23. Lesson Attributes Monitoring and Assessment Effective monitoring enables the teacher to have a conscious awareness of where each student is in relation to the learning objective. Formative and summative assessment takes place during and after the teaching of the lesson objective to provide data regarding mastery of the learning to both the teacher and the student. C/I/A-23

    24. Lesson Attributes Application Brain research supports the opportunity for students to apply new learning, thus making stronger connections and driving the knowledge into long-term memory. Many of the TEKS/TAKS skills require the application of learning. C/I/A-24

    25. engagement/ motivation feedback/ reinforcement questioning/ inquiry application connections/ relevance monitoring/ assessment objectives/ goals Lesson Attributes C/I/A-25

    26. View a video clip of Cheryl, an eighth-grade social studies teacher, and record your observations. Discuss at your table the behaviors you observed. Shift in Teaching and Learning Activity C/I/A-26

    27. Teacher/Student Behaviors Cheryl Kelley Teacher Behaviors: Teacher Behaviors: Student Behaviors: Student Behaviors: C/I/A-27

    28. Shift in Teaching and Learning Activity View the video clip of Kelley, another eighth-grade social studies teacher, and record your observations. Discuss at your table what behaviors you observed. C/I/A-28

    29. Teacher/Student Behaviors Cheryl Kelley Teacher Behaviors: Teacher Behaviors: Student Behaviors: Student Behaviors: C/I/A-29

    30. • Thinking at high cognitive levels and making connections within and across disciplines • Addressing the varied needs and characteristics of all learners • Assessing student progress • Alignment of learning objectives Four Critical Elements of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment C/I/A-30

    31. Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections Instruction: How (instructional attributes, designs, strategies) Curriculum: What (state, district, campus, teacher) Quality Student Performance Addressing the Varied Needs and Characteristics of All Learners Alignment of Learning Objectives Assessment: To what extent (state, district, teacher) Assessing Student Progress C/I/A-31

    32. Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment Thinking at High Cognitive Levels and Making Connections Instruction: How (instructional attributes, designs, strategies) Curriculum: What (state, district, campus, teacher) Quality Student Performance Addressing the Varied Needs and Characteristics of All Learners Alignment of Learning Objectives Assessment: To what extent (state, district, teacher) Assessing Student Progress C/I/A-32

    33. Bloom’s Taxonomy • On a separate sheet of paper, list the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy in order from least to most difficult. • Write a brief definition for each level. • Compare with a partner. • Compare your work with another pair. C/I/A-33

    34. Bloom’s Taxonomy Level Definition C/I/A-34

    35. Original Terms New Terms • Evaluation • Synthesis • Analysis • Application • Comprehension • Knowledge • Creating • Evaluating • Analyzing • Applying • Understanding • Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8) C/I/A-35

    36. Change in Terms • The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. • As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate. • The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs • Some subcategories were reorganized. • The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead. • Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category. (http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003; Pohl, 2000, p. 8) C/I/A-36

    37. Change in Emphasis • More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment. • Aimed at a broader audience. • Easily applied to all levels of schooling. • The revision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategories. (http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003; Pohl, 2000, p. 10) C/I/A-37

    38. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy CreatingGenerating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing thingsDesigning, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.EvaluatingJustifying a decision or course of actionChecking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judgingAnalyzingBreaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationshipsComparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, findingApplyingUsing information in another familiar situationImplementing, carrying out, using, executingUnderstandingExplaining ideas or conceptsInterpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, explainingRememberingRecalling informationRecognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Higher-order thinking C/I/A-38

    39. Development of State Curriculum TEKS (SS–Gr. 4) Analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto. (SS–Middle) Analyze causes of the American Revolution, including mercantilism and British economic policies following the French and Indian War. (SS–High) Evaluate the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system and explain why this new form of federalism was adopted instead of a unitary system. C/I/A-39

    40. Bloom’s Taxonomy and TAKS/TEKS Activity • In pairs and using the TAKS/TEKS document, H-C/I/A-16, identify the level of Bloom’s taxonomy of the TAKS and TEKS. • Discuss with your table group. C/I/A-40

    41. Structure of Knowledge Theory Principle Generalization Concepts Concepts Topic Topic FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS —H. Lynn Erickson —Adapted from Structure of Knowledge C/I/A-41

    42. Examining the Structure of Knowledge Theory: Is a conceptual idea that is yet to be proven. Principle: A form of generalization, but is a truth that holds consistently through time. Generalization: Connection/relatedness of two or more concepts. Concept: An organizing idea, represented by one or two words. Examples have common attributes. Topic: A category of study with a body of related facts to be learned. Fact: A statement of truth. —H. Lynn Erickson —Adapted from Structure of Knowledge C/I/A-42

    43. Examining the Structure of Knowledge, Continued EXAMPLE LEVEL Migration is a psychologically-driven response to meet an internal need. Theory Principle/Generalization People migrate to meet a variety of needs. Migration may lead to new opportunities or greater freedom. • migration• needs• opportunity• freedom Concept Topic Westward Movement Early American settlers migrated west. Early American settlers looked for new opportunities. Fact -from H. Lynn Erickson C/I/A-43

    44. 8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge 8.2 (a–d) The student selects and uses appropriate operations to solve problems and justify solutions. TEKS Theory People use formal and informal reasoning to solve problems. Generalization Reasonable solutions can be justified. ReasonablenessSolutionsRelationshipsJustification Concept Topic Number operations Addition and multiplication are additive properties. Multiplication by a constant factor can be used to represent proportional relationships (e.g., a=1.4x). Fact C/I/A-44

    45. 8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge • Locate the envelope on your table labeled “8th Grade Mathematics TEKS.” • Place the two additional examples of the 8th grade mathematics TEKS into the blank columns by sorting them according to the Structure of Knowledge. C/I/A-45

    46. 8th Grade Mathematics TEKS and the Structure of Knowledge 8.3 (a–b) The student identifies proportional relationships in problem situations and solves problems. 8.5 (a–b) The student makes connections among various representations of a numerical relationship. TEKS Patterns show relationships that can be used to make predictions. Patterns show relationships that can be used to make predictions. Generalization Representations Solutions Sequence Relationships Relationships Patterns Concepts Topics Algebraic Expressions Percents Algebraic equations represent proportion relationships. Tables and graphs may represent algebraic expression. In proportional relationships: when one variable changes the other variable changes to the same degree in the same way. Facts C/I/A-46

    47. Structure of Knowledge Across the Core Content Areas • Locate the envelope labeled “Structure of Knowledge Across the Content Areas.” • Using the contents of the envelope, determine the facts, topics, concepts and generalizations for each of the following TEKS: Social Studies 8.24 (a-e) Science 8.6 Language Arts 8.12 (a, c, f, g, h, j) C/I/A-47

    48. Structure of Knowledge Across the Core Content Areas SS 8.6 (Biology 12) SS 8.24 (a-e) TEKS ELA 8.12 • Similarities and differences between and among people influence relationships. • Differences between and among people can create conflict. • There is a relationship of mutual influence between organisms and their environment. • Interdependence occurs among living systems. • Forms of written texts have distinguishing characteristics. • Different types of texts serve different purposes. Principle/ Generalization Influence Relationships Conflict Patterns Influence Relationships Systems Interdependence Conflict Relationships Change Concepts Conflict in American Society Ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere American Literature During the Civil War Topics • Organisms are organized into species. • Organisms depend on unique resources to survive. • Species vary from ecosystem to ecosystem. • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was a novel written to influence public opinion concerning slavery. • Proponents of states’ rights and abolitionists both used written texts to explain their views and influence public opinion. • Conflict between white settlers and Native Americans led to forced migration of the American natives. Facts C/I/A-48

    49. Structure of Knowledge andTEKS/TAKS Activity • In pairs and using the Social Studies TEKS/TAKS document, identify the level of complexity for 8.1 and 8.24 using the Structure of Knowledge. • Discuss with your table group. C/I/A-49

    50. Using the Analysis Tool • Locate one copy of the Analysis Tool handout in the participant notebook. • Find the red dots in your table materials. • Based on your analysis of the TEKS and TAKS objectives, place a red dot on the Analysis Tool grid for TEKS statement 8.1 and 8.24. C/I/A-50