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yeast cell - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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yeast cell. cell wall (protection) cell membrane (import + export, signaling) cytoplasm (energy production, growth) nucleus (heredity). material and energy. What is a cell?. A. D. Feeding + excreting. B. E. C. Y. signaling. Shape change. move. What cells can do?. DNA. DNA. DNA.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

yeast cell

cell wall (protection)

cell membrane (import + export, signaling)

cytoplasm (energy production, growth)

nucleus (heredity)

material and

energy

What is a cell?

slide2

A

D

Feeding + excreting

B

E

C

Y

signaling

Shape change

move

What cells can do?

slide3

DNA

DNA

DNA

DNA

DNA replication

RNA

genetic code

DNA

protein

+

RNA

DNA

DNA

Transcription

The information flow in cells (central dogma)

DNA

slide4

xerox

machine

collating

machine

DNA

cell division

DNA replication

chromosome

segregation

slide5

The central dogma

gene

transcript

protein

S P

metabolism

slide6

Beyond the central dogma

genome

transcriptome

proteome

networks

S P

metabolome

slide7

G1

G2

slide8

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

MPF

SPF

slide9

G1

G2

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

G2/M

MPF

exit

SPF

Start

slide10

control

box

cell division

DNA replication

chromosome

segregation

slide11

reversible

Tyrosine

phosphorylation

ubiquitin

dependent

proteolysis

binding of a

stoichiometric

inhibitor

slide12

cytoplasmic mass doubling time

G1

G2

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

G2/M

MPF

exit

SPF

Start

slide13

Balanced growth and division

-

-

+

+

+

viability

cytoplasmic

mass doubling

time

M

M

M

G2

G2

S

cycle time (min)

G2

G2

M

G1

S

S

G2

G1

G1

S

S

G1

G1

wee1-

cki-

cdc25 -

WT

cki–

wee1-

slide14

Balanced growth and division

-

-

+

+

+

viability

M

M

M

G2

G2

cell volume at division (fl)

S

cycle time (min)

G2

G2

M

G1

S

S

G2

G1

G1

S

S

G1

G1

WT

wee1-

cki-

cki–

wee1-

cdc25 -

slide15

pheromone

-

G1

G2

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

MPF

SPF

slide16

inhibitor

-

G1

G2

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

MPF

SPF

Start

slide17

inhibitor

G1

G2

Cdk

CycBM

Cdk

CycBS

-

G2/M

MPF

SPF

Start

slide19

cell mass doubling time

G1

G2

+

+

exit

G2/M

Cdk

CycB

Start

slide20

inactive

inactive

APCM

Wee1

P

delay

Exit

Wee1

APCM

P

Cdk

Cdk

CycB

Cdc25

P

APCG1

Cdc25

G2/M

inactive

Cdk

APCG1

inactive

CKI

CycB

P

CKI

CKI

AA

Start

CycB

AA

Cdk

Cdk

CycB

inactive

slide21

Parameters?

?

fission yeast

budding yeast

slide22

Mutants in Fission Yeast

gene viability trait

cdc2-no block in G1 and G2

cdc13-no endoreplication

rum1-yes sterile

ste9-yes sterile

wee1- yes small cells

cdc25- no block in G2

cdc2opyes wt

cdc13opyes wt

rum1opno endoreplication

ste9opno endoreplication

wee1op yes large cells

cdc25op yes small cells

wee1- rum1 no extremely small

wee1- cdc25 yes quantized cycles

wee1- cdc25op no mitotic catastrophe

slide23

period of oscillation

period

time

tD

CKI

APCM

mass (m)

Cdk

CycB

APCG1

= cycle time

= mass doubling time (tD)

dm/dt =  m where  = ln2/tD

CycB

M

G1

S/G2

M

rate ~ mass

time (min)

slide24

period

period

time

tD

CKI

APCG1

mass (m)

Cdk

CycB

APCM

Size control over the cell cycle

mass

dm/dt =  m where  = ln2/tD

CycB

M

G1

S/G2

M

rate ~ mass

time (min)

slide26

APCM

Wee1

P

Cdk/CycB

delay

Exit

Wee1

APCM

cell mass

P

Cdk/CycB

Cdk

Cdk

CycB

Cdc25

P

APCG1

cell mass

Cdc25

Cdk

APCG1

CKI

CycB

Cdk/CycB

P

CKI

CKI

AA

Start

cell mass

CycB

AA

Cdk

Cdk

CycB

G2/M

slide27

Bifurcation diagram of the cell cycle control network

stable s.s.

unstable s.s.

min/max

M

Cdk/CycB

S/G2

G1

cell mass

slide28

newborn

cell

dividingcell

Cell cycle regulation on the bifurcation diagram

stable s.s.

unstable s.s.

min/max

M

Cdk/CycB

Exit

G2/M

S/G2

Start

G1

cell mass

slide29

G1 checkpoint

M

0.4

Cdk/CycB

S/G2

G1

0

0

2

3

5

1

4

cell mass

metaphase checkpoint

G2 checkpoint

1.6

M

M

1.2

0.4

Exit

G2/M

Cdk/CycB

Cdk/CycB

0.8

S/G2

0.4

G1

G1

S/G2

0

0

0

2

3

5

1

4

4

0

2

3

5

1

cell mass

cell mass

Checkpoint

controls