Chapter 5. Gases. Overview. Gas Laws Gas Pressure and its measurement Empirical gas laws Ideal gas laws Stoichiometry and gases Gas Mixtures; Law of partial pressures Kinetic and Molecular Theory Kinetic theory of an Ideal gas Molecular speeds: diffusion and effusion Real gases.
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P = dHgghHg = doilghoil or dHghHg = doilhoil.
E.g. 1 The volume of some amount of a gas was 1.00 L when the pressure was 10.0 atm; what would the volume be if the pressure decreased to 1.00 atm?
E.g. 2 A gas occupied a volume of 6.54 L at 25°C what would its volume be at 100°C?
E.g. 3 The volume of 0.555 mol of some gas was 100.0 L; what would be the volume of 15.0 mol of the same gas at the same T and P?
E.g. Calculate the pressure inside a TV picture tube, if it's volume is 5.00 liters, it's temperature is 23.0C and it contains 0.0100 mg of nitrogen.
E.g. Estimate the density of air at 20.0C and 1.00 atm by supposing that air is predominantly N2.
E.g. From the results above determine the density of He.
E.g. A certain gas was found to have a density of 0.480 g/L at 260C and 103 Torr. Determine the FM of the compound.
E.g. Determine the volume of gas evolved at 273.15 K and 1.00 atm if 1.00 kg of each reactant were used. Assume complete reaction (i.e. 100% yield)
CaO(s) + 3C(s) CaC2(s) + CO(g).
E.g. 1.00 g of air consists of approximately 0.76 g nitrogen and 0.24 g oxygen. Calculate the partial pressures and the total pressure when this sample occupies a 1.00 L vessel at 20.0C.
E.g. determine the mole fraction of N2 in the above example.
E.g. Suppose KClO3 was decomposed according to
2 KClO3(s)+ 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g).
PT = 755.2 Torr and 370.0 mL of gas was collected over water at 20.0C. Determine the number of moles of O2 if the vapor pressure of water is 17.5 torr at this temperature.
where a and b are constants that are characteristic of the gas.
where NA = Avagadro’s number.
where u = average velocity
E.g. determine average velocity of He at 300 K.
E.g.2 predict the ratio of the speeds of some gas if the temperature increased from 300 K to 450 K.
E.g. determine the molecular mass of an unknown compound if it effused through a small orifice if it effused 3.55 times slower than CH4.
E.g. A compound with a molecular mass of 32.0 g/mol effused through a small opening in 35 s; determine the effusion time for the same amount of a compound with a molecular mass of 16.0.