Chapter 12

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# Chapter 12 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 12. Nonrenewable Energy Sources. Warm-Up Question. What have you done today that required energy?. Measuring Energy. Are all energy sources measured in the same way? Gallons of gasoline Cords of wood Cubic feet of natural gas

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## Chapter 12

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### Chapter 12

Nonrenewable Energy Sources

Warm-Up Question

What have you done today that required energy?

Measuring Energy
• Are all energy sources measured in the same way?
• Gallons of gasoline
• Cords of wood
• Cubic feet of natural gas
• How do we measure the amount of energy if each source has its own unit of measure?
British Thermal Units
• 1 Btu = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit
• 1 wooden kitchen match = 1 Btu
• 1 ounce of gasoline = 1,000 Btu’s
Btu’s
• Everyday, the average American uses about 890,000 Btu’s of energy
• In order to measure very large quantities of energy, we use the “quad”, which represents 1 quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) Btu’s
• The U.S. uses about 1 quad of energy every 3.7 days
Energy
• What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources?
• What percent of our energy comes from nonrenewable energy sources? Renewable energy sources?
Nonrenewable Energy
• Nonrenewable energy resources - fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and nuclear fuels
Energy Use
• Commercial energy sources - those that are bought and sold, such as coal, oil and natural gas
• Subsistence energy sources - those gathered by individuals for their own use such as wood, charcoal, and animal waste
Efficiency of U.S. Automobiles
• How has automobile efficiency changed over the past 30 years?
AP Practice Problem

Which of the following is not a nonrenewable energy resource?

• Oil
• Coal
• Natural gas
• Wind
• Nuclear fuels
Electricity Generation
• The burning fuel from coal transfers energy to water, which becomes steam
• The kinetic energy contained within the steam is transferred to the blades of a turbine, a large device that resembles a fan
• As the energy in the steam turns the turbine, the shaft in the center of the turbine turns the generator
• This mechanical motion generates electricity
AP Practice Problem

Which of the following is not a nonrenewable energy resource?

• Oil
• Coal
• Natural gas
• Wind
• Nuclear fuels
Fuels Used for Electricity Generation in the U.S.
• Most coal burning power plants are about 35% efficient
Cogeneration
• Cogeneration - using a fuel to generate electricity and to produce heat
• Ex: If steam is used for industrial purposes or to heat buildings it is diverted to turn a turbine first
• This improves the efficiency to as high as 90%
Coal
• Coal - a solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials that were preserved 280-360 million years ago
• Four types of coal ranked from lesser to greater age, exposure to pressure, and energy content
• These four types are: lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite
• The largest coal reserves are in the United States, Russia, China, and India
Coal
• Coal is most abundant fossil fuel
• Primarily used for generating electricity
• There are 3 categories of coal:
• Lignite – least desirable because of its high moisture content
• Bituminous – most widely used because it is most abundant and easiest to mine
• Anthracite – has the highest energy content and is cleanest burning, but is hard to obtain
Coal Reserves in the U.S.

lignite

anthracite

bituminous

Coal in the World
• Where in the world is coal found?
Petroleum (Oil)
• Petroleum - a mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur that occurs in underground deposits
• Oil and gasoline make this ideal for mobile combustion, such as vehicles
• Formed from the remains of ocean-dwelling phytoplankton that died 50-150 million years ago
• Countries with the most petroleum are Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States, Iran, China, Canada, and Mexico
Oil in the U.S.
• When was the first U.S. commercial oil well drilled?
• 1859
• Where was it drilled?
• Titusville, PA

What are the top oil producing states in the U.S.?

• Texas (21%)
• California (10%)
• North Dakota (6%)
• Louisiana (3%)
Issues Related to the Use of Oil
• Present technology only removes 1/3 of an oil deposit
• Secondary recovery methods are used to recover more oil, such as forcing water or gas into wells to drive the oil out
• As oil prices increase, more expensive and aggressive secondary recovery methods will need to be used
Secondary Recovery
• Steam can be injected to recover more oil
Petroleum Products
• What products can be made from petroleum?
Oil Refining
• http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining2.htm
Benefits of Using Oil
• Oil is more concentrated than coal, burns cleaner, and is easily transported through pipelines
• Can be used to make many products
• It causes less environmental damage than coal mining
Drawbacks of Using Oil
• Oil spills
• Oil well blowouts
• Pipelines and transportation routes
• Air pollution when burned
What we pay for in a gallon of gasoline

Source: Energy Information Agency

Natural Gas
• Natural gas - exists as a component of petroleum in the ground as well as in gaseous deposits separate from petroleum
• Contains 80-95% methane and 5-20% ethane, propane, and butane
Fracking
Other Fossil Fuels
• Oil sands - slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay
• Bitumen (tar or pitch) - a degraded type of petroleum that forms when a petroleum migrates close to the surface, where bacteria metabolize some of the light hydrocarbons and others evaporate
Hubbert Curve
• Hubbert curve - a graph that shows the point at which world oil production would reach a maximum (“peak oil”) and the point at which we would run out of oil
Future Use of Fossil Fuel Use
• If current global use continues, we will run out of conventional oil in less than 40 years
• Coal supplies will last for at least 200 years, and probably much longer
Nuclear Energy
• Nuclear Fission - a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts
Uranium

Fuel Pellets

• U-235 is more desirable because it’s easier to split (fission)
• Enrichment process increases the amount of U-235

Uranium Ore

• 99.3% of all uranium atoms are the isotope U-238
• Remaining 0.7% are U-235
Fission
• A nuclear power plant converts the energy contained within the nuclei of atoms into electrical energy
• U-235 absorbs a neutron to become highly unstable U-236
• U-236 splits and releases a tremendous amount of heat energy
Nuclear Reactors
• Fuel rods - the cylindrical tubes that house the nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant
• Nuclear power plants work by using heat from nuclear fission to heat water
• This water produces the steam to turn the turbine, which turns a generator
• Control rods - cylindrical devices that can be inserted between the fuel rods to absorb excess neutrons, thus slowing or stopping the fission reaction
Nuclear Energy in the World
• Nuclear power plants generate about 22% of the United States’ electricity
• In comparison:
• 75% in France
• 46% in Sweden
• 43% in Ukraine
• 39% in South Korea
• 30% in Germany
• 30% in Japan
Nuclear Power Plant Meltdowns
• In 1986, the Chernobyl (Ukraine) nuclear reactor exploded
• 50 tons of radioactive material spewed into the surrounding area, contaminating millions of acres of forest.
• Forced the evacuation of at least 30,000 people
• Eventually caused thousands to die from cancer and other illnesses
Nuclear Waste
• Radioactive waste - once the nuclear fuel can not produce enough heat to be used in a power plant but it continues to emit radioactivity
• This waste must be stored in special, highly secure locations because of the danger to living organisms
Nuclear Waste
• High-level radioactive waste - the form used in fuel rods
• Low-level radioactive waste - the protective clothing, tools, rags, and other items used in routine plant maintenance
Nuclear Fusion
• Nuclear fusion - occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei and heat is released
• Ex: the reaction that powers the Sun and other stars
• Fusion is a promising, unlimited source of energy in the future, but so far scientists have had difficulty containing the heat that is produced