Internal Injuries Sports Related Internal Injuries
General Overview of Internal Injuries • Any organ in the abdominal cavity can be injured – pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, intestines. • Typical Symptoms – abdominal pain, tenderness over area, cold, sweaty skin, nausea/vomiting, rapid pulse, low blood pressure, loss of consciousness
Rib Contusion • MOI – direct blow to rib cage • S&S: • 1. bruising of intercostal muscles • 2. pain upon inspiration – expanding rib cage • 3. localized tenderness
Rib Contusion • Treatment: • Padding with compression wrap • Ice, NSAID, x-ray to rule out fracture
Rib Fracture • MOI – direct blow • S&S: • 1. pain upon inspiration • 2. shallow, rapid breathing • 3. feel crepitus over rib
Rib Fracture • Treatment • 1. x-ray to rule out a pneumothorax • 2. protective padding with compression wrap • 3. allow 3-4 weeks to heal
Pneumothorax • Tearing of lung leading to an accumulation of air between lung and chest wall. • MOI – direct blow • Complication of rib fractures
Pneumothorax • S&S • 1. cyanosis – bluish tongue, mucous membranes • Shortness of breath\chest pain referred to shoulder • Treatment – emergency! • 1. administer oxygen • 2. place in a semi-reclining position – 45 degrees
Ruptured Spleen • Function: filters almost 10% of the body’s blood supply every minute. • Located in the upper left quadrant, lower left rib cage • MOI – direct blow
Ruptured Spleen • S&S • 1. pale, due to constricted blood vessels • 2. rapid pulse • Dizzy, faint – blood loss • Abdominal pain referred to left shoulder
Ruptured Spleen • Complication: • Usually ruptures when spleen is enlarged- mononucleosis. • Can rupture during a relatively innocent movement or direct blow • Tearing of the spleen can cause rapid bleeding – life threating internal bleeding.
Hepatic Rupture ( LIVER) • 2nd largest organ of body • Function: filters blood coming from digestive tract, detoxifies chemicals/metabolizes drugs • 2 lobes – right lobe usually injured – bigger and presses against ribcage
Ruptured liver • MOI – direct blow to upper right quadrant • S&S – same as ruptured spleen due to bleeding in abdominal cavity but pain is referred to right shoulder • Treatment – medical emergency – surgery!
Renal Contusion/Rupture(kidney) • MOI: direct blow to lower back ( flank) • S&S – backache, contusion to flank, blood in urine ( immediately refer to doctor)
Ruptured Kidney • Treatment • 1. some cases the partial rupture will resolve spontaneously • Large rupture needs surgically repaired
Contusion to Solar Plexus • Known as “Getting the Wind Knocked Out” • MOI – direct blow to solar plexus or falling forcefully on your back • Causes forceful expiration which inhibits inspiration for a few seconds • Spasm of the diaphragm thus paralysis of breathing
Signs and Symptoms Unable to catch breath Treatment – calm athlete and normal breathing should occur in a few seconds.