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Grunewald’s The Crucifixion. Francesca’s Flagellation (of Christ). Using these two paintings, comment on the similarities and differences between Italian and Northern humanism. The Protestant Reformation Ch14. Pope Julius II – warrior-pope – Holy League 1517 - Luther posts 95 Theses

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Grunewald’s The Crucifixion

Francesca’s Flagellation (of Christ)

Using these two paintings, comment on the similarities and differences between Italian and Northern humanism.

the protestant reformation ch14
The Protestant ReformationCh14
  • Pope Julius II – warrior-pope – Holy League
  • 1517 - Luther posts 95 Theses
  • 1534 - Act of Supremacy – Church of England
early reformation
Early Reformation
  • Frederick II and Ferdinand/Isabella, Babylonian Captivity, Great Schism, Church patronage and political power
  • Priests neglected rule of celibacy, drank, gambled, barely literate, and terrible in Mass
  • Higher clergy had too many positions – did not have a home church
  • States wanted to treat the clergy like the rest of the people – taxes and civic responsibilities
  • Evangelical or Magisterial Branches
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • Planned to be a lawyer
  • Theology teacher at University of Wittenberg
  • “The just shall live by faith.” Romans (1:17)
    • Salvation by faith
  • 95 Theses – abuses of the church - indulgences
  • Diet of Worms – Luther is declared an outlaw and excommunicated from the church
  • “ Sola Fide” - Salvation by faith
  • “Sola scriptura” – truth lies in the Bible
  • “Sola gratia” – free gift of God’s grace - sacraments
  • German Kings created their own church
  • Services, not mass – reading the Bible, preaching and hymns – everyone equal – baptism and Eucharist
  • German translation of Bible - Guttenberg
  • Abolished monasteries and celibacy of clergy – Luther would marry a former nun
Peasants’ Revolt – crop failures – Luther did not support the peasants

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V - Catholic

Diet of Augsburg – 1530

War in 1546

1555 - Peace of Augsburg

German prince right to determine religion of his state

Lutheran or Roman Catholic

No recognition of Calvinists or Anabaptists

Lutheranism dominant in northern Germany and Scandinavia

calvinism swiss ch14 4
Ulrich Zwingli

Humanist and Catholic priest

Sacraments only symbolic ceremonies (Eucharist)

Rejected celibacy of clergy

Emphasized simplicity in worship

Killed by Catholic forces

John Calvin

French Protestant

Exile in Geneva

Doctors, pastors, deacons, and elders

Institutes of the Christian Religion


Salvation by election



Calvinism - SwissCh14-4
spread of calvinism



John Knox





Max Weber’s theory of the “Protestant work ethic”

Spread of Calvinism
Radicals of the PR

Rejection of infant baptism

Active in Peasants’ Revolt

Woman’s rights

Menno Simons


jan leiden of munster
Jan Leiden of Munster
  • Cult
  • Polygamy, burned all books (not Bible), end of the world
  • Catholics and Lutherans hated him - executed

Students will write a thesis paragraph in response to this prompt: “Comparing Luther to other Protestant reform movements, explain whether he was a conservative or a radical. Justify your conclusion.”

henry viii 1491 1547
Henry VIII 1491-1547
  • He was big and handsome and wore fine clothes
  • He loved games, horse-riding and hunting
  • He spoke four languages, wrote poetry and played music
but most important to him
But most important to him…
  • He wanted to be a strong king, with a firm hold on the throne
  • He most wanted a son to succeed him
catherine of aragon spain 1485 1536
Catherine of Aragon, Spain1485-1536
  • She was married to Arthur
  • Married 1509 – 5 yrs. older
  • She had a daughter, Mary, but no sons
  • She was too old for more children – many miscarriages
  • In 1533, Henry divorced her - Dies in 1536 – age 51
church of england
Church of England
  • During this time, Henry was trying desperately to change England’s religious stance.
  • England was affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. After Henry tried to divorce Catherine of Aragon and the church said no, he decided to form his own church – the Church of England. This is where we get protestant churches of today.
anne boleyn 1499 1536
Anne Boleyn 1499 - 1536
  • Married 1533
  • She was young, pretty and witty
  • She had one daughter, Elizabeth
  • Has a miscarriage the day of Catherine’s funeral - son
  • She was beheaded for being unfaithful in 1536
jane seymour 1509 1536
Jane Seymour 1509 -1536
  • Married 1536 (11 days after execution of Anne)
  • She had a son, Edward.
  • She died during childbirth
  • Edward replaced his dad, but died soon after.
  • Henry probably loved her best of all his wives
anne of cleves 1515 1557
Anne of Cleves 1515-1557
  • Married 1540
  • The marriage made a link between England and Germany
  • Henry thought she was ugly
  • Divorced 1540 – the same year!
catherine howard 1521 1542
Catherine Howard 1521 - 1542
  • Married 1540
  • She was 20, Henry was 49
  • She was unfaithful
  • Executed in 1542
catherine parr 1512 1548
Catherine Parr 1512 - 1548
  • Married 1543 – her 4th husband – She was dating Jane Seymour’s brother
  • She liked family life and looked after Henry’s children
  • She outlived Henry – Married Thomas Seymour
edward vi
Edward VI
  • 1547 Henry VIII dies
  • Succeeded by Edward VI (only 10)
  • Turmoil swept England.
    • Scotland invaded
    • peasant violence.
  • Edward dominated by devout Protestants who pushed for Calvinist reforms.
  • Dies from TB
mary tudor 1553 1558
Mary Tudor 1553-1558
  • Mary Tudor inherits the throne when Edward dies in his teens
  • Determined to make England Catholic again.
  • Parliament would not support the return of church lands to the church.
  • Called “Bloody Mary”. Why?
  • What did she do to her half-sister, Elizabeth?
mary and philip ii
Mary and Philip II
  • 1554 - Mary(37) married Phillip II of Spain(27), son of Charles V and future king of Spain.
  • This caused an uprising in England. Why?
  • Led plot to depose her.
  • Opposition to Mary made England more Protestant than it had been before her reign
  • 1558 - Queen Elizabeth takes the throne when Mary dies. She dies at age 42.
the england of elizabeth
The England of Elizabeth
  • Elizabeth Itook the throne of England in 1558 and ruled for 45 years.
  • Considered one of the best British Monarchs.
  • Under her reign England went from a relatively poor, second-tier country to the leader of Protestant Europe
  • Powerful naval power poised to create a vast empire. Drake
religious reforms
Religious Reforms
  • Elizabeth’s first problem was to heal the religious wounds in her country.
  • What is Elizabeth’s approach?
    • Repeals the anti-Protestant laws of Mary
    • Passed a new Act of Supremacy making the monarch the only supreme governor of both the Church and State.
    • Modified the church service to meet some of the objections of Catholics—made less “Protestant”
spanish netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
  • Spanish Netherlands were very important to Spain. Why? Industry
  • Phillip’s attempt to strengthen Spain’s control over the area led to revolt. Why? Protestants
  • Violence erupts in 1566 when Calvinists destroy Catholic Churches.
  • Phillip sends in 10,000 troops
  • English Aid to Netherlands – War? Spanish Armada
elizabeth tweaks france and spain
Elizabeth Tweaks France and Spain
  • Elizabeth provided clandestine help to both the Dutch Calvinists and French Huguenots.
  • Commissioned privateers to raid Spanish treasure ships returning from the New World. Francis Drake

Golden Hinde

conflict with spain
Conflict with Spain
  • Phillip II ultimately decided to invade England
  • Reasons:
    • Believed that revolt in Netherlands would never be put down while England was aiding them.
    • Irritated by privateering/pirating
    • Wanted to claim England back for the Pope.
    • Believed that if Spanish troops appeared in England the people would rise up in support of Catholic liberators.
    • Revenge on Elizabeth.
spanish armada 1588
Spanish Armada - 1588
  • Phillip’s Plan
    • Create a powerful armada of 150 ships to destroy and dominate England in the North Atlantic
    • Invade with troops from Netherlands.
  • On paper, England appears to be in serious trouble.
  • What advantage does the English have? What is the key to Spanish naval strategy?
  • How does the weather aid England?
elizabeth and foreign policy
Elizabeth and Foreign Policy
  • Government in debt – too many parties and gowns - raise taxes or sell land?
  • Conflict between nobles and gentry – power struggle
  • Elizabeth was pressed by her advisors to make a political marriage. She did not want to share power with a foreigner or Englishman. Why?
  • Using this and other diplomatic maneuvers, she kept England neutral and unencumbered by alliances that would force England into war.
  • “Virgin Queen” – She dies with no heir to the throne – The Stuart Dynasty starts
james i 1603 1625
James I (1603-1625)
  • First of the Stuart Dynasty – Scot – Mary’s son
  • He derives his power from God
  • Spends too much money – Parliament
  • Puritans – They want to purify the church of all Catholic rituals and symbols – Opponents of James I
  • Died of stroke – age 59
bourbon france
Bourbon France
  • Hapsburg-Valois Wars – Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis – Spain Won
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 8/24/1572 – Queen Catherine attacks the Huguenots (French Protestants)
  • Civil Wars delayed France’s development as an international and colonial power
  • Wars lasted for 30 years.
house of bourbon
House of Bourbon
  • Bourbons(Huguenot) become the ruling family.
  • Henry IV (1598-1610) – Had no choice but to convert to Catholic
  • Edict of Nantes(1598)—
    • Catholicism is the official religion of France
    • Huguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right to all political privileges.
    • Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles and towns.
catholic response
Catholic Response

Catholic Reformation

Counter Reformation

Stop spread of Protestantism

  • Revive Catholic Spirituality
agencies of catholic reform
Agencies of Catholic Reform
  • The chief agencies in carrying out this work were:
    • The papacy
    • A group of religious orders, especially the Society of Jesus or Jesuits
    • The Council of Trent
    • The Inquisition
    • The Index of Prohibited Books
the society of jesus
The Society of Jesus
  • The Jesuits were the creation of St. Ignatius Loyola. He was a Spanish soldier, injured in battle, who experienced a conversion during his convalescence.
st ignatius loyola
St. Ignatius Loyola
  • As a consequence, he felt a new desire to devote his life to the service of God and carried his military ideals with him. Henceforth, he would be a Soldier of Christ.
purposes of the order
Purposes of the Order
  • The original purpose of the Jesuits was to reach and convert the masses of people who had strayed from the church. Thus preaching was their fundamental task. They also stressed the instruction of children in Christian doctrine and urged more frequent confession and communion.
council of trent 1545 63
Council of Trent (1545-63)
  • Salvation could be achieved by faith and works
  • Only the Church could translate and interpret the Bible.
  • Selling indulgences were forbidden
  • Creation of seminaries – training schools – better education and training of priests
  • Reaffirm celibacy, good works, authority of the papacy, and transubstantiation(bread and wine)
persecution and repression
Persecution and Repression
  • The states of Europe were asked to facilitate the work of the Inquisition.
    • In France, the request was denied.
    • In Spain, however, the activities of the Inquisition, long vigorous, were stimulated even further.
    • Roman inquisition – Galileo incident
witchcraft craze
Witchcraft Craze
  • 1480s-1660s – most common in 1560s
  • Economic and Social upheaval results in social tensions that manifest themselves in witchcraft craze.
  • Causes?
  • As many as 100,000- 200,000 trials
  • Who was most frequently accused? Why?
the index
The Index
  • The Roman Index of Prohibited Books, another means of suppressing heretical doctrines.
    • It included a wide variety of books, including not only heretical ones but also obscene books and books on witchcraft.
    • In addition, the pope appointed a Congregation of the Index, to keep the Index up to date and to publish revised editions periodically.
    • Lasted to 1966
  • The church did correct many of their abuses. i.e. indulgences
  • Europe was religiously divided. The Protestants controlled the North and the Catholics controlled the South.
  • Religious persecution – Jews, lesser Protestant groups
  • Protestant work ethic/Capitalism
  • Future War