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Students of Color from First-Generation and Low-Income Backgrounds: An Untapped and Hidden Resource for Increasing Diversity in P-20 Teacher Education Programs. Leon Rouson , PhD Norfolk State University Aretha F. Marbley, PhD Texas Tech University Presented at the

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Students of Color from First-Generation and Low-Income Backgrounds: An Untapped and Hidden Resource for Increasing Diversity in P-20 Teacher Education Programs

Leon Rouson, PhDNorfolk State University

Aretha F. Marbley, PhDTexas Tech University

Presented at the

NAME Summer Institute

Northern University

DeKalb, Illinois

June 28, 2012


Addressing the Demographic Imperative:

Recruiting and Preparing a Diverse and Highly Effective Teaching Force


This workshop will share central components from a Teacher Prep- Student Support Service Initiative, funded by United States Department of Education in order to increase the overall number of school teachers by focusing on diamonds in the rough—students from low income and first-generation backgrounds.

overview continued
OVERVIEW Continued

This workshop will explore factors such as cultural relevance and competence, social support, mentoring, social capital, institutional climate, and racial, social, and psychological barriers that may impact their academic and practical success.

learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to:

  • Identify and conceptualize the key components of highly effective Teacher Preparation Programs for diverse students
  • Utilize and select best practices in the recruitment and retention of diverse teachers
  • Define and create social capital strategies for diverse students
more learning outcomes
More Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will:

  • Develop an understanding of the terms culture, ethnicity, race, color, ancestry, acculturation, and nationality, and their relationship to social justice in teacher education
  • Develop a multicultural approach to teacher education that is inclusive of students from different backgrounds
  • Gain knowledge of the social constructions of diversity (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender), within the context of the classroom and the implications to recruiting and preparing a diverse and highly effective teaching force.
learning outcomes continued
Learning Outcomes Continued

At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will:

  • Become familiar with Sue, Arredondo and McDavis (1992) Cultural Competencies Model
  • Explore their own personal beliefs, values, and attitudes concerning culture, race, ethnic and other diverse groups and cultures
  • Become familiar with the challenges of effective multicultural interaction
  • Increase personal and professional cultural competency and gain an understanding of diversity and social justice issues in teacher education.

This workshop will also provide useful data, practical strategies, and strong recommendations for successfully recruiting, retaining, supporting, and graduating students of color in P-20 teacher education programs.


The percentage of incoming college students who are 1st generation is steadily increasing

Fewer low-and moderate income American students are attending college and fewer are graduating

Low income students potentially forego wages to attend college


Who are the People of Color

The Impact of Cultural Competency

Cultural Competencies Matrix (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992)

Racial Identity Statuses

Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Model

Applying the Models: Vignettes

  • Ethnic Identity/Acculturation Model
  • Cross-Cultural Competencies


teacher prep student support services
Teacher PREPStudent Support Services
  • Purpose
  • Guidelines
  • Components
  • Results

Norfolk State University (one of six programs in the country)

The Federal TRIO Programs are educational opportunity outreach and on-campus programs designed to motivate and support students from disadvantaged backgrounds.
. The TRIO programs were established to help low-income, first-generation college students and students with disabilities (as part of President’s Johnson’s war on poverty) to progress through the academic pipeline from middle school to earn baccalaureate degrees.
The TRIO programs began under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, and in 1968, SSS was funded to form the third program making a "TRIO" of federal programs.
Class, social, and cultural barriers that affected academic success were included factors in The TRIO programs
The Talent Search program identifies qualified youths with potential for education at the postsecondary level and encourages them to complete secondary school and undertake a program of postsecondary education.
The program also publicizes the availability of student financial assistance for persons who seek to pursue postsecondary education, and it encourages persons who have not completed education programs at the secondary or postsecondary level, but who have the ability to do so, to reenter these programs.
The purpose of the Upward Bound Program is to generate, in low-income and first generation high school students, the academic strength, skills, and motivation required to ensure their success in postsecondary education.
The program is designed to better prepare selected students to enter and complete a post-secondary educational program after the completion of high school.
The goal of SSS is to
    • Increase the retention and graduation rates of eligible students.
    • Increase the transfer rate of eligible students from two-year to four-year institutions; and
    • Foster an institutional climate supportive of the success of low-income and first generation college students and individuals with disabilities.
debunking myths and stereotypes
Debunking Myths and Stereotypes
  • First generation is the same as low income and vice versa
  • College students of color are most likely to be first generation and from low SES and disadvantaged backgrounds
  • These students are usually academically underprepared for college
operational definitions
Operational Definitions:

Who are the Students of Color, First Generation Students And Low Income Students

who are the students of color
Who are the Students of Color?
  • Asians and Pacific Islanders
  • African Americans
  • Native Americans/ Indians
  • Hispanics/Latinos
who are the first generation and low income students
Who are the First-Generation and Low-IncomeStudents?

According to Billson and Terry (1982) first generation college students are those whose parents did not attend college

first generation students are most likely to be
First generation students are most likely to be:
  • Women
  • Older adults (age 30 and up),
  • Married and/or have dependent children
  • African-American or Hispanic
  • Have lower incomes and come from lower-income families
  • Need remedial coursework
first generation students are most likely to be1
First generation students are most likely to be:
  • Attend college part-time
  • Delay entry into postsecondary education
  • Begin college at a 2-year institution
  • Live off campus or with family
  • Work full-time
  • Stop in and out of college
who are the low income college students
Who are the Low income college students
  • Low income college students are students from families with less financial means, although the exact definition of "less financial means" is up for debate and varied.
low income college students are most likely to
Low Income College Students are most likely to:
  • Enter college less academically prepared
  • Graduate from college at lower rates
  • Drop out of college at higher rates
  • Attend college part-time
  • Work full-time while attending college
  • Take on more student loans
low income college students are most likely to be
Low Income College Students are most likely to be:
  • Female
  • Partnered/Married with dependent children
  • African-American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino
  • Come from lower-income families
  • Not get financial help from family
  • Need remedial coursework
first generation students
First Generation Students

Have little knowledge about the college life and culture

  • tend to have a harder time:
    • Learning how to navigate academy
    • Understanding faculty vernacular
    • Dealing with Faculty Expectations
    • Knowing who, what, and how to get the help they need
challenges and struggles
Challenges and Struggles
  • Identity
  • Financial
  • Family
  • Imposter Phenomenon
  • Unfamiliar and Unwelcoming Climate
  • Social Integration
  • Academic Culture
social capital
Social Capital
  • Social Capital is the quality and quantity of relationships, networks, and norms among people and organizations that facilitate collective action (Ferrangina, 2010)
  • Mentorship refers to a personal developmental relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. However, true mentoring is more than just answering occasional questions or providing ad hoc help. It is about an ongoing relationship of learning, dialog, and challenge (Bozeman, 2007)
multicultural competencies where do we begin
Multicultural Competencies: Where do We Begin?
  • A starting point in our understanding of cultural competence is the concept of culture.
  • Culture is the way of life of multiple groups in a society and consists of prescribed ways of behaving or norms of conduct, beliefs, values, and skills (Gordon, 1978)
racial social and psychological barriers
Racial, Social and Psychological Barriers
  • Define
  • Research
  • Best Practices
  • Race
  • Ethnicity
  • Color (Colorism)
  • Culture
  • Ancestry
  • Nationality
  • Acculturation
multicultural competencies
Multicultural Competencies:
  • The word competence means sufficiency, adequacy, and capability.
  • Competence may vary from person to person.
  • “Competence implies having the capacity to function effectively within the context of culturally integrated patterns of human behavior defined by the group” (NASW, 2001, p.4).
multicultural competencies1
Multicultural Competencies:
  • Multicultural competency is defined as the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (personal attributes) professionals need to live and work in a diverse world.
multicultural competencies2
Multicultural Competencies:
  • Multicultural competence not only applies to individual professionals but also to agencies, local, state, federal, and global entities (Cross, Friesen, Mason, & Rider, 1988).
multicultural competencies3
Attitudes and Beliefs (Personal Attributes)





Cultural Self

Diverse Ethnic Groups

Social/Political Frameworks

Changing Demographics


Cross Cultural Communication



Conflict Resolution

Critical Thinking

Language Development

Leadership Development

Multicultural Competencies:
cross cultural competencies
Cross-Cultural Competencies

Counselors Are Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biases

  • Attitudes and Beliefs
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have moved from being culturally unaware to being aware and sensitive to their own cultural heritage and to valuing and respecting differences.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are aware of how their own cultural backgrounds and experiences and attitudes, values, and biases influence psychological processes.

Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 477-486.

Culturally skilled Counselors are able to recognize the limits of their competencies and expertise.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are comfortable with differences that exist between themselves and Clients in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, and beliefs.
b knowledge
B. Knowledge
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have specific knowledge about their own racial and cultural heritage and how it personally and professionally affects their definitions of normality-abnormality and the process of counseling.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors possess knowledge and understanding about how oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping affects them personally and in their work.
b knowledge1
B. Knowledge
  • Culturally skilled Counselors possess knowledge about their social impact on others. They are knowledgeable about communication style differences, how their style may clash or foster the helping process with Clients of color, and how to anticipate the impact it may have on others.
c skills
C. Skills
  • Culturally skilled Counselors seek out educational, consultative, and training experience to improve their understanding and effectiveness in working with culturally different populations.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are constantly seeking to understand themselves as racial and culturally beings and are actively seeking a nonracist identity.
iii counselors awareness of clients worldview
III. Counselors Awareness of Clients Worldview
  • Attitudes and Beliefs
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are aware of their negative emotional reactions toward other racial and ethnic groups that may prove detrimental to their Clients in counseling. They are willing to contrast their own beliefs and attitudes with those of their culturally different Clients in a nonjudgmental fashion.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are aware of their stereotypes and preconceived notions that they may hold toward other racial and ethnic groups.
b knowledge2
  • Culturally skilled Counselors possess specific knowledge and information about the particular group they are working with. They are aware of the life experiences, cultural heritage, and historical background of their culturally different Clients.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors understand how race, culture, ethnicity, and so forth may affect personality formation, vocational choices, manifestation of psychological disorders, help-seeking behavior, and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of medical approaches.
b knowledge3
B. Knowledge
  • Culturally skilled Counselors understand and have knowledge about sociopolitical influences that impinge upon the life of people of color. Immigration issues, poverty, racism, stereotyping, and powerlessness all leave major scars that may influence the medical process.
c skills1
C. Skills
  • Culturally skilled Counselors should familiarize themselves with relevant research and the latest findings regarding issues of various ethnic and racial groups.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors become actively involved with individuals of color outside of the medical setting (community events, social and political functions, celebrations, friendships, neighborhood groups, and so forth) so that their perspective of minorities is more than an academic or helping exercise.
iv culturally appropriate intervention strategies
IV. Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies
  • A.Attitudes and Beliefs
  • Culturally skilled Counselors respect client’s religious and/or spiritual beliefs and values, including attributions and taboos, because they affect worldview, psychosocial functioning, and expressions of distress.
Culturally skilled Counselors respect indigenous helping practices and respect intrinsic help-giving networks within communities of color.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors value bilingualism and do not view another language as an impediment to medical (monolingualism may be the culprit).
b knowledge4
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have a clear and explicit knowledge and understanding of the generic characteristics of medical and therapy (culture bound, class bound, and monolingual) and how they may clash with the cultural values of various groups of color.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are aware of institutional barriers that affect people of color
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have knowledge of the potential bias in assessment instruments and use procedures and interpret findings keeping in mind the cultural and linguistic characteristics of the Clients.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have knowledge of family structures, hierarchies, values, and beliefs of people of color. They are knowledgeable about the community characteristics and the resources in the community as well as the family.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors should be aware of relevant discriminatory practices at the social and community level that may be affecting the psychological welfare of the population being served.
c skills2
C. Skills
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are able to engage in a variety of verbal and nonverbal helping responses. They are able to send and receive both verbal and non-verbal messages accurately and appropriately. They are not tied down to only one method or approach to helping but recognize that helping styles and approaches may be culture bound.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are able to exercise institutional intervention skills on behalf of their clients.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors are not averse to seeking consultation with traditional healers and religious and spiritual leaders and Counselors in the treatment of culturally different Clients when appropriate.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors take responsibility for interacting in the language requested by the client and, if not feasible, make appropriate referral. A serious problem arises when the linguistic skills of a practitioner do not match the language of the client. This being the case, Counselors should (a) seek a translator with cultural knowledge and appropriate professional background and (b) refer to a knowledgeable and competent bilingual practitioner.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors have training and expertise in the use of traditional assessment and testing instruments. They not only understand the technical aspects of the instruments but also are also aware of the cultural limitations. This allows them to use test instruments for the welfare of the diverse Clients.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors should attend to as well as work to eliminate biases, prejudices, and discriminatory practices. They should be cognizant of sociopolitical contests in conducting evaluation and providing interventions.
  • Culturally skilled Counselors take responsibility in educating their Clients to the processes of mental health intervention, such as goals, expectations, legal rights, and the clinician’s orientation.
emic and etic
Emic and Etic

There is more differences existing within ethnic/racial groups than between.

within group differences
Within Group Differences
  • Ethnic and Racial Identity Development
  • Level of Acculturation
  • Multiple Experiences
ethnic identity and acculturation
Ethnic Identity and Acculturation
  • An important area for professionals to consider when providing services to people of color is the relationship between ethnic identity and acculturation.
  • This relationship is affected by SES, education, background, gender, age, immigrant status, etc.
ethnic identity
Ethnic Identity
  • Refers to an individual’s sense of belonging to a particular ethnic group
racial identity
Racial Identity
  • Refers to the quality of that relationship
  • Is a bidirectional process in which the person has assimilated to the majority culture and at the same time retained his or her own ethnic culture and identity.
four different relationships between ethnic identity and acculturation lee 1996
Four Different Relationships Between Ethnic Identity and Acculturation (Lee,1996)
  • A strong sense of ethnic identity and a high degree of acculturation
  • A weak sense of ethnic identity and a high degree of acculturation
  • A strong sense of ethnic identity and a low degree of acculturation
  • A low sense of ethnic identity and a low degree of acculturation
Cultural competence has a positive impact on recruitment, retention, and success outcomes of students and teachers of color.
the impact of cultural competency
The Impact of Cultural Competency

According to National Association of School Psychologists:

  • Culturally competent educators are aware of and respect the importance of the values, beliefs, traditions, customs, and parenting styles of the children and families they serve.
  • They are aware of the impact of their own culture on their interactions with others and they consider all of these factors when planning and providing services to children and their families.
the impact of cultural competency1
The Impact of Cultural Competency

Teachers know enough about students’ cultural and individual life circumstances to be able to communicate well with them. They know that students who have the academic and cultural wherewithal to succeed in school without losing their identities are better

prepared to be of service to others; in a democracy, this commitment to the public good is paramount. (Ladson-Billings, 2001, p. 5)

the impact of cultural competency2
The Impact of Cultural Competency
  • Teachers are better prepared to work effectively with diverse populations
  • Effective teaching and learning happens in a culturally supported, and learner-centered context whereby the strenghts students bring to class, regardless of their cultural backgrounds, are identified nurtured, and utilized to promote student achievement (Richard, Brown, & Ford, 2004).
the impact of cultural competency3
The Impact of Cultural Competency

Howard (1999) postulates that the multicultural education process engages us in five key arenas of learning.

  • To know who we are racially and culturally
  • To learn about and value cultures different from our own,
  • To view social reality through the lens of multiple perspectives
  • To understand the history and dynamics of dominance
  • To nurture in ourselves and our students a passion for justice and the skills for social action” (p. 81).
the impact of cultural competency4
The Impact of Cultural Competency

Villegas and Lucas (2001 ) believe that:

Successfully teaching of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds involves more than just applying specialized teaching techniques. It demands a new way of looking at teaching that is grounded in an understanding of the role of culture and language in learning. A central role of the teacher is to support students’ learning by helping them build bridges between what they already know about a topic and what they need to learn about it. (p. 29)

intersectionality multiple oppressions multiple identities
Intersectionality: Multiple Oppressions/Multiple Identities
  • For people of color, in addition to being of color, these problems can be further aggravated by other oppressed identities such as race, ethnicity, educational level, poverty , disability, sexuality, and (for females) gender.
applying the models case scenario
Applying the Models: Case Scenario

The Case of Mrs. Sadie Johnson.

Mrs. Sadie Johnson a seventy-eight year old African-American female, seems to be in a depressed state: she rarely leaves the house (except when the church van picks her up on alternate Sundays).

**Handout of the complete case study will be available during lecture.

steps in analysis
  • What are the decision (e.g., medical) issues presented in the case?
  • What are the diversity issues presented in the case?
  • What facts are essential for understanding and dealing with the issues?
  • What additional information must be collected?
  • Who are the principal decision makers and what roles do they play?
cultural variables
Cultural Variables
  • Are there any cultural differences that might be relevant to the issues?
  • What alternatives are available to medical professionals?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages associated with each alternative?
  • What course of action (long-term and short-term) will be taken?
a framework for culturally competent clinical practice
A Framework for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice
  • Explanation: What do you think may be the reason you have this problem? What do friends, family, and others say about your symptoms? Do you know anyone else who has had or who now has this kind of problem? Have you heard about/read about/seen it on TV/radio/newspaper? (If Clients cannot offer an explanation, ask what most concerns them about their problems).
  • Treatments: What kinds of medicines, home remedies, or other treatments have you tried for this illness? Is there anything you eat, drink, or do (or avoid) on a regular basis to stay healthy? Tell me about it. What kind of treatment are you seeking from me?
  • Healers: Have you sought any advice from alternate or folk healers, friends, or other people who are not doctors for help with your problems? Tell me about it.

Vontress, C., Johnson, & Lawrence (1999)

Cross-cultural counseling: A casebook.


case 1 shenikwa
CASE 1: Shenikwa
  • Shenikwa is a sixteen year old African-American female in foster care seems to be in a depressed state: she rarely leaves the house when she gets home and she spends most of her time in bed watching television. Her house is falling apart and rooms are dirty and filthy; she appears to be rather isolated: Her few friends (who are also outcasts aren’t much help) and she has little contact with her other relatives. She lives on a horrid diet of junk food and occasional handouts from friends.
case 2 pedro and maria
CASE 2: Pedro and Maria
  • Pedro is a 18 year old Mexican high school senior who speaks very little English. Pedro immigrated illegally to California ten years ago from Mexico. He had been sister Maria is 13 years old and is bilingual . Pedro has attended school off and on because he has had a rough, difficult job that provided him with barely enough to support his dad support his ten siblings. Because of his Dad’s failing health he can no longer work and depends on Pedro.
case 3 diane
CASE 3: Diane
  • Diane is a thirty-year-old Native American Indian who grew up on a reservation in North West Arkansas. She is currently enrolled in Truman City College, a community college in intercity Chicago. She is very upset over failing her math test. Diane’s children were placed in Protective Child Custody when Diane overdosed on heroine. Her mother died a couple of weeks later from a massive heart attack. A few months later her children were released to their paternal grandparents who are currently residing in her hometown.
case 3 diane contd
CASE 3: Diane CONTD…
  • She wants desperately to succeed so that she can prove to her former in-laws and her tribe that she is a worthy mother so they will let her visit her children. Diane is dealing with many issues: alcoholism, single parenting, guilt over the loss of two of her children due to drinking, grief, and guilt over her mom's death.
case 4 christine
CASE 4: Christine
  • Christine is a sixteen-year-old African American junior. Her mother is white and her dad is Nigerian. Christine's mother separated from her dad and recently accepted a job at a local hospital in Lubbock, Texas. Christine left Long Island, NY to join her mom. They are temporarily staying with her mother’s parent in the Kingspark neighborhood. She was enrolled and started classes last semester in a predominantly White magnet high school. At the beginning of the year Christine was very excited and anxious to join some of the activities and clubs in her school. She loved especially dancing and was the co-captain of her former high school steppers club. She had participated also in other dance groups and had been selected on the cheerleading team this year.
case 4 christine contd
CASE 4: Christine CONTD…
  • Christine tried-out for the pep team at her new high school and was told she didn’t make the team. The pep team’s sponsor and coach counseled her not to try out in the high school drill and cheerleader teams because in her opinions, Christine lacks the necessary skills. Christine is unhappy and feels left out of many academic and extra-curricular activities.
  • Using D’Andrea and Daniels (1997) RESPECTFUL Counseling Model (10 minutes)
    • Assess the degree to which your own psychological development has been influenced by these factors
    • Identify some of your own biases they may have a negative impact in the counseling process
ii using the information from both frameworks
II. Using the information from both frameworks:
  • Assess for the broad range of human characteristics and differences that comes into play in the education process in each of the scenarios
  • Assess for your level of knowledge, awareness and skills for working with this client
  • Assess the degree to which your own psychological development has been influenced by the diversity of this client.
  • Develop education strategies and techniques that are consistent with the issues presented and the diversity background of the client.
respectful counseling model
RESPECTFUL Counseling Model
  • R Religious/Spiritual Identity
  • E Ethnic/Cultural/Racial Background
  • S Sexual Identity
  • P Psychological Maturity
  • E Economic Class Standing
  • C Chronological Challenges
  • T Threats to One’s Well-being
  • F Family History
  • U Unique Physical Challenges
  • L Location of Residence

D’Andrea, M., & Daniels, J. (1997, December). RESPECTFUL counseling:

A new way of thinking about diversity counseling. Counseling Today, 31-33.

what have we learn about first generation and low income students of color
What Have We Learn about First Generation and Low Income Students of Color?
  • Definitions
  • Examples
  • Best Practices
  • Solutions
  • Change
Some Common Practices of large institutions that do a good job of retaining FG/LI students from a study by the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Education.

Designated faculty or staff members as “first responders” to students’ needs, helping students navigate these large, complex institutions.

Relatively high levels of student involvement and engagement in campus activities and programs, which personalize the college experience for students.

Strong first-year programs, such as freshman orientation programs, freshman success courses, freshman interest groups, and first-year learning communities, in which student participation is required.

Efforts to improve instruction in “gatekeeping” introductory courses, particularly in STEM courses

Special programs for student who are at risk for academic failure that incorporate many of the “best practices” in the retention literature.
  • Strong leadership from senior administrators who create an institutional culture that promotes student success by demonstrates their commitment to retention, providing adequate resources to fund programs, and rewarding the efforts of those involved in retention efforts.
A an office that manages retention activities across academic and student affairs, and athletic programs in order to foster collaboration.
  • An emphasis on using data about retention in the academic learning and decision-making process and in order to improve delivery of services, outcomes, and the efficient use of resources and social capital.
in conclusion
In Conclusion
  • What is a multicultural approach to education?
  • What are your personal beliefs about other cultures?
  • What is cultural competence?
  • What competencies are needed for effective educational practice?
  • How is competency attained?
  • How is it measured?
in conclusion1
In Conclusion
  • How does cultural diversity and multiculturalism related to social justice?
  • What are the challenges?
  • What are the implication to the US and the world?
  • How does it affect you?
questions answers
Questions & Answers
  • Feedback
  • Reflection
  • Change

Ayvazian, A (2001). Interrupting the cycle of oppression. The role of allies as agent of change. In Rothenberg, PS. (Ed.) Race, class and gender in the United States, Fifth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. Pp. 604-611.

Banks, J. A. (2001). An introduction to multicultural education. Third Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Pp. 1-4.

Banks, J. (2006). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Baptist, W. and Rehman, J. (2011). Pedagogy of the poor: Building the movement to end poverty. NY: Teachers College Press.

Belgrave, L.L. (1993). Health, double jeopardy, and culture: The use of institutionalization by African-Americans. Gerontologist, 33(3), 379-385.

Bozeman, B & Feeney, M. K. (2007). Toward a useful theory of mentoring: A conceptual analysis and critique Administrative & Society. 39 (6) 719-739.

Brown, C. S., & Bigler, R. S. (2005). Children’s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development, 76(30), 533-553.

Dasgupta, P., and Sergeldin, I., ed. (2000). Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective. Washington, DC: World Bank (pp.403-425).

Davis, B. M. (2006). How to teach students who don’t look like you: Culturally relevant teaching strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Ferrangina, C. (2010). Social Capital and Equality: Tocqueville’s Legacy, Rethinking social capital in relation with income inequalities. The Tocqueville Review, Vol XXXI nl (pp.73-98).

Foster, M. (1997) Black teachers on teaching. New York: The New Press.

Harris, H.L. (1998). Ethnic minority people: Issues and interventions. Educational Gerontology, 24(4), 302-323.

Howard, G. R. (1999). We can’t teach what we don’t know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Howard, G. R. (2007). As diversity grows, so must we. Educational Leadership: Responding to changing demographics, 65(6), 16-21.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Teaching and cultural competence: What does it take to be a successful teacher in a diverse classroom? Rethinking Schools Online, 15(4) 1-5.

McCaroon, G.P & Inkelas, K.K. (2006). The gap between educational aspirations and attainment for first-generation college students and the role of parental involvement. Journal of College Student Development, 47(5), 534-548.

references continued
References Continued:

Merriam, S.B., Johnson-Bailey, J., & Lee, M. (2001). Power and positionality: Negotiating insider/outsider status within and across cultures. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(5), 405-416.

Powlishta, K. K., Serbin, L.A., Doyle, A., & White, D. R. (1994). Gender, ethnic, and body type biases: The generality of prejudice in childhood. Developmental Psychology, 30, 526-536.

Oldfield, K. (2007). Welcoming first-generation poor and working-class students to college. About Campus, 11(6), 2-12

Richards, H. V., Brown, A. F., & Forde, T. B. (2004). Addressing diversity in schools : Culturally responsive pedagogy. Retrieved from

references continued1
References Continued:

Pascarella, E.T., et. al. (2004). First-Generation college students: Additional evidence on college experiences and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 75(3), 249-284

Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 477-486.

Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 20-32.

contact information

Leon Rouson, PhD - Norfolk State University

[email protected]


Aretha F. Marbley, PhD - Texas Tech University

[email protected]

806-872-1997 Ext. 268