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Different Types of Inheritance. Dihybrid Crosses. Cross that involves two traits Concludes with 16 offspring. Steps for Solve for Dihybrid Cross. Make a key for the two traits that you are crossing Black Hair (B) vs Brown Hair (b) Curly Hair (S) vs Straight Hair (s)

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dihybrid crosses
Dihybrid Crosses

Cross that involves two traits

Concludes with 16 offspring

steps for solve for dihybrid cross
Steps for Solve for Dihybrid Cross
  • Make a key for the two traits that you are crossing
    • Black Hair (B) vs Brown Hair (b)
    • Curly Hair (S) vs Straight Hair (s)
  • Write out the different genotypes of the parents
    • Mother is heterozygous for both traits BbSs
    • Father is heterozygous for hair color but has straight hair Bbss
  • Figure out the possible gametes (similar to FOIL) there are four for each parent and each gamete must have one allele from each trait
    • Mother: BbSs BS; Bs; bS; bs
    • Father: Bbss Bs; Bs; bs;bs
steps for solve for dihybrid cross1
Steps for Solve for Dihybrid Cross

Set up your punnett square

BS BsbSbs

bs

bs

Bs

Bs

bbss

bbss

Bbss

Bbss

Bbss

Bbss

BBss

BBss

bbSs

bbSs

BbSs

BbSs

BbSs

BbSs

BBSs

BBSs

steps for solve for dihybrid cross2
Steps for Solve for Dihybrid Cross
  • Count up the possible genotypes and phenotypes that you have from your punnett square
    • Genotypes: Phenotypes:
      • BbSs:4/16 Black/Curly: 6/16
      • BBSs:2/16 Black/Straight: 6/16
      • Bbss:4/16 Brown/ Straight:2/16
      • BBss: 2/16 Brown/Curly: 2/16
      • bbSs: 2/16
      • bbss:2/16
fourth type of inheritance
Fourth Type of Inheritance:

Incomplete Dominance

incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance

Inheritance that occurs when one trait is not completely dominant over another

Results in the heterozygous form being blended together

solving an incomplete dominance problem
Solving an Incomplete Dominance Problem

Perform a regular monohybrid punnett square

Only difference is the heterozygous offspring will be mixture of two traits (i.e. if black and white than gray)

example
Example
  • Red carnations are not completely dominant to white carnations- perform a punnett square mating a red and white carnation

r r

R

R

Rr

Rr

RrRr

results
Results

Genotype: 4/4 Rr

Phenotype 4/4 Pink

Example: Black fur (B) is dominant over white fur (b) in guinea pigs. Cross a grey guinea pig with a white guinea. What do we get?

Answer: ½ Bb (grey) and ½ bb (white)

third type of inheritance
Third Type of Inheritance

Sex Linked Traits

sex determination
Sex Determination

In humans and many other organisms, sex is determined by the X and Y chromosomes.

Females: XX

Males: XY

sex determination1
Sex Determination

Sons get their X chromosome from their mothers only.

Fathers must pass their X chromosomes to their daughters.

sex linked traits
Sex Linked Traits
  • Genes that are found on the X chromosome follow a have a special pattern of inheritance:
  • X linked traits are only passed to sons from the mother
  • Males are much more likely to be affected than females.
    • If trait is recessive, daughters have a second X chromosome so they can be heterozygous. Sons only have one X chromosome
sex linked traits1
Sex Linked Traits

Baldness

Daughters can be carriers and pass the trait onto their son.

Examples

sex linked problem
Sex Linked Problem
  • A woman is not colorblind but her husband is. Construct a punnett square to determine what is the chance that their children will be colorblind.

Xb

Y

XBXB

0%- what about % of being carrier

50%

sex linked example
Sex Linked Example

A woman who is a carrier for hemophilia marries an unaffected male. What is the % chance that their children will be affected?

XHXh

XH

Y

XH XH XH Xh

XH Y XhY

25%

  • 25% affected- how many carriers?
codominance
Codominance

When two different alleles are present and both are expressed

example blood types
Example: Blood Types
  • Red blood cells are coated with different markers.
  • Each person contains either A, B, A and B or neither protein.
    • Blood Types are: A, B, AB, O
example blood type
Example: Blood Type
  • Susan (blood type AB) and Bryan (blood type O) have a son that has blood type B? Since neither Susan nor Bryan have this blood type, was their a mistake in the hospital?
    • Construct punnett square on next slide
example blood types1
Example: Blood Types

IA IB

IA IO IBIO

IAIO IBIO

IO

IO

Results: ½ A blood type or ½ blood type B

Yes he is their son!