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Examination & Treatment of the Lower Extremity Amputee. Pre-prosthetic PT Intervention 4-03-07. Reading Focus for Class Discussion. O’Sullivan pp. 620, 622-639 Blackboard-foot care/prevention **We will use Guide to PT practice for this unit. Introduction.

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examination treatment of the lower extremity amputee

Examination & Treatment of the Lower Extremity Amputee

Pre-prosthetic PT Intervention

4-03-07

reading focus for class discussion
Reading Focus for Class Discussion
  • O’Sullivan
  • pp. 620, 622-639
  • Blackboard-foot care/prevention
  • **We will use Guide to PT practice for this unit
introduction
Introduction
  • Labs for Unit 4, grading rubric for discharge note, home exercise program will be posted on Blackboard this week
  • Visit to Hanger will be scheduled for late April, in the evening and attendance is required (in lieu of Thursday/Friday lab)
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Identify and apply major factors leading to lower extremity amputation
  • Describe and apply the levels of lower extremity amputation and the functional impact
  • Discuss and apply PT early post-operative examination, goals & treatment of the LE amputee.
  • When presented with a clinical case study, analyze & interpret patient data; determine realistic goals/outcomes and develop a plan of care
case scenario
Case Scenario
  • It’s Tuesday morning, and you receive a PT order to evaluate and treat the following patient:
    • Mr. John Howard, 70 year old man who underwent a left lower extremity amputation Saturday afternoon
what is the cause reason for mr howard s amputation
What is the cause/reason for Mr. Howard’s amputation?
  • History of diabetes with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and chronic non-healing foot ulcers
  • Very mild peripheral neuropathy
what are the major causes for lower extremity amputation
What are the major causes for lower extremity amputation?
  • PVD=peripheral vascular disease (arteriosclerosis)
    • Associated with smoking & diabetes (6-25% of pts. With PVD & DM will need amputation)
      • Pt. with DM who undergoes one amputation 2 to PVD has 51% chance of 2nd operation within 10 yrs.2
  • Trauma
    • MVA, gunshot
  • Cancer
  • Congenital2
causes of amputation by percent
Causes of Amputation by Percent

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 328.

risk factors for pvd
Risk factors for PVD?

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 330.

  • Diabetes
  • Poorly managed HTN
  • High cholesterol/triglycerides
  • Smoker
    • *same as risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
    • PVD and peripheral neuropathy (numb, cold, paresthesia, pain) are the major predisposing factors for LE amputation in individuals with DM2
what are signs symptoms of vascular insufficiency
What are Signs/Symptoms of Vascular Insufficiency?
  • Intermittent claudication
    • What is this?
      • Significant cramping pain, usually in the calf, that is induced by walking or other prolonged muscle contraction and relieved by a short period of rest
    • Vascular pain (increase with LE elevation)
  • Loss of one or more lower extremity pulses
    • Arteriosclerosis obliterans=at least one major arterial pulse (dorsal pedis artery at ankle, popliteal artery at knee or femoral artery in the groin) absent or impaired2
clinical signs of pvd
Clinical signs of PVD

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 344.

protective sensation
Protective sensation
  • Must be able to perceive 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament
  • Easy and inexpensive way to identify patients at risk for foot ulceration2
what is the level of mr howard s amputation
What is the level of Mr. Howard’s amputation?
  • s/p transtibial amputation of ideal length
what are the levels classification of amputation
What are the levels/classification of amputation?
  • Transtibial (BK) 54%
  • Transfemoral (AK) 32%
  • Syme/foot 3%
  • Hip disarticulation 1%
  • Upper extremity 8% 4
how was mr howard s level of amputation selected
How was Mr. Howard’s level of amputation selected?
  • Preserve as much viable tissue/select most appropriate level
selection of amputation levels
Selection of Amputation Levels
  • General guidelines
  • Considerations with PVD
  • Considerations with trauma
  • Considerations with malignant tumor
  • Considerations with deformity
  • Considerations with congenital limb deficiency/deformity revision
how does the level of amputation and age of patient affect outcome
How does the level of amputation and age of patient affect outcome?
  • Higher the amputation, more difficult the rehab.
  • Older/sicker the pt., more difficult the rehab.
age of amputees
Age of Amputees
  • > 61 40%
  • 41-60 35%
  • <40 25%
    • 72% are males 4
who is on the team
Who is on the Team?
  • Pt.
  • Dr.
  • PT
  • Prosthetist
  • OT
  • Social worker/case manager
  • Dietician, nursing, etc.
  • Vocational Rehab
responsibilities of the team
Responsibilities of the Team
  • Evaluate pt.
  • Initial training in prep. for prosthesis
  • Prescription of prosthesis (if appropriate)
  • Fabrication of prosthesis
  • Delivery of prosthesis
  • Evaluate fit of prosthesis
  • Train in use, care of prosthesis
  • Follow-up eval. For problems, possible changes, needs of pt.
  • Maintenance/replacement of prosthesis
what tests measures should be included in mr howard s initial pt examination
What tests/measures should be included in Mr. Howard’s Initial PT examination?
  • Ideally Mr. Howard would have had a referral to PT BEFORE his amputation
  • Definitive strength assessment of joint just proximal to amputation can consist of only active, nonresisted antigravity motion until adequate healing of surgical site
    • i.e. will only be able to assess knee flexion and extension to fair muscle grade; TF will only be able to assess hip to fair muscle grade
  • When incision healed & cleared by Dr., remember that lever arm reduced & MMT grades could be inflated
    • Do not apply pressure for MMT through dressingmust be able to visualize suture line during 1st several weeks of preprosthetic prog.2
  • Guide to Physical Therapy Practice
    • Practice pattern 4 J, 5G, 7 A, 7C/D/E1
pre prosthetic examination
Pre-prosthetic Examination
  • May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996, p. 73.
slide26
Exam

Seymour, R. Prosthetics and Orthotics: Lower Limb and Spinal. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2002, p. 37.

how can pt record measurements for mr howard s residual limb
How can PT record measurements for Mr. Howard’s residual limb?
  • Actual length
  • Total length including soft tissue
    • Measurements taken from easily ID bony landmark to the palpated end of the long bone, to the incision line, or to the end of soft tissue
      • Medial joint line or tibial tubercle
      • TF start measurement at at ischial tuberosity or greater trochanter
      • Document which landmark you used!
      • TT 5-6 inches ideal; TT less than 3 inches problematic for prosthetic control and skin integrity
  • Circumference:medial tibial plateau or tibial tubercle and at equally spaced points to end of limb; TF=begin at ischial tuberosity or greater trochanterclearly document interval between measurements
    • Prosthesis often made when distal limb circ=prox limb circ (<1/4 inch difference) 2
poor residual limb healing
Poor Residual Limb Healing
  • May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996, p. 79.
what are likely limitations for mr howard
IMPAIRMENTS

Pain

Decreased strength, ROM, mobility

Decreased skin integrity

Decreased endurance

Psychological issues

FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS

Inability to walk, work, play

What are likely limitations for Mr. Howard?
what should be included in the early post op care for mr howard
What should be included in the early post-op care for Mr. Howard?
  • ROM, positioning, skin care, edema control, isometrics, strengthening of UE’s/residual and remaining limb,pt. education, bed mobility, transfers, balance, etc.
what are pt s primary goals outcomes for mr howard s immediate post operative period
What are PT’s primary goals/outcomes for Mr. Howard’s immediate post-operative period?
  • Ensure optimal wound healing
  • Early preparation of the limb for prosthetic fitting
  • Maintain, increase mobility
  • Improve endurance
  • Care of remaining limb
  • Maintain/increase ROM and strength
how should pt inspect mr howard s wound
How should PT inspect Mr. Howard’s wound?
  • Monitor residual limb for shape, incision healing/closure, length, sensory integrity, volume, tissue integrity, color temp., pain
  • Easy to do with dressing change
    • Record quantity/quality of drainage
      • Normal for clear drainage first couple daysshould decrease over time; report red or darker blood or thickening discolored drainage with odor to Dr.
  • Traumatic (nondysvascular) pt. often ready to be casted for training prosthesis day 10, others day 142
how can you teach mr howard scar management
How can you teach Mr. Howard scar management?
  • Once primary healing established, teach pt.scar massage above & below incision (not across)
  • Once wound well-closed, and no steri-strips, can begin gently to mobilize scar itself
  • Why is scar mobilization important?
    • Tissues must be able to glideadherence promotes shearing forces which lead to skin breakdown2
what are common post amputation sensations mr howard may experience
What are common post-amputation sensations Mr. Howard may experience?
  • phantom limb sensation
    • 70% will experienceNumbness, tingling, pressure, itching, mild cramp in foot/calf
  • phantom limb pain
    • Shooting limb pain, severe cramping, severe burning in amputated foot/limbNOT psychological!
    • higher amputationgreater liklihood
    • Evidence if pt. had significant dysvascular limb pain a surgery are more likely to have phantom limb pain2
how would you explain phantom limb pain to mr howard
How would you explain phantom limb pain to Mr. Howard?
  • All nerves that once had branches to LE are still present, but end at a new place. It takes time for the brain to learn this fact. Also, these nerves may be very sensitive from the amputation surgery as they are pulled and then severed and allowed to retract. 4
what are some strategies for treatment of phantom limb pain
What are some strategies for treatment of phantom limb pain?
  • Patient education before surgery
    • Alert pt. to issues of safetywake up in middle of night p recent amputation and fall when attempt to stand and walk thinking both limbs are intact
  • Careful inspection of limb to r/o neuroma or infected wound
  • Compression, use of prosthesis, desensitization techniques, heat
  • Medications, steroid injection, nerve block, relaxation/hypnosisvaried effectiveness2
pt management of pain
PT management of Pain
  • Time pain meds. So that pain control in optimal during PT activities
  • Pt. ed. on imagery & relaxation methods
  • TENS: wound healing and phantom pain
  • US, cold therapy, massage
  • Wear prosthesis/compression bandages
    • Varying effectiveness
    • Pain management MUST NOT interfere with wound healing2
why is compression bandaging important for all amputees
Why is compression bandaging important for ALL amputees?
  • Reduce edema
  • Controls pain
  • Enhances wound healing
  • Protects incision during functional activity
  • Facilitate preparation for prosthetic placement by shaping and desensitizing limb

*1st 4 are required even if pt. not a candidate for prosthesis2

what options are there for edema control for mr howard
What options are there for edema control for Mr. Howard?
  • Compression bandaging
    • Rigid
      • Rigid applied by surgeon in OR, removed 3-4 day, can then put new c IPOP-allows limited TTWB in 2-3 days-prosthetist
      • Best for controlling edema and pain
      • Not good for pt. c significant risk for infection because wound status not easily visualized unless removeable (RRD)-PT
    • Semi-rigid
      • Prosthetist takes negative mold in OR or p rigid removed 3 day
      • Polyethlene light weight,easy to clean,more durable than plaster
      • Unna paste=zinc oxide,glycerin,calamine & gelatindries 24 h; Can be left on for 5-7 days
      • Air bag
    • Soft bandaging=ace bandage, compressogrip
      • Once suture line healed (10-21 days), use shrinker TT/TF, Jobst for TF 2
slide40
RRD

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 400.

semi rigid dressing
Semi-rigid dressing

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 401.

shrinkers
Shrinkers

Lusardi MM & Nielsen CC. Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000, p. 405.

principles of ace wrapping
Principles of Ace-wrapping
  • Distal pressure should exceed proximal
  • Pressure applied on oblique turns only
  • Should be reapplied at least every 4 hours
  • No wrinkles
  • Don’t use metal clips—tape down
  • No aching, burning or numbness—remove
  • Wear 23 hours a day (remove for hygiene only)
  • Wash daily, squeeze, don’t wring and air dry (need 2 sets)
  • Continue use until pt. has definitive prosthesis & pt. can leave stump unwrapped overnight and don prosthesis without difficulty in the morning 6
what are the most common contractures to prevent in mr howard
What are the most common contractures to prevent in Mr. Howard?
  • Transtibial
    • Hip flexion
    • Knee flexion
  • Why?
    • Long periods sitting in w/c, bedposition of comfort is one of flexion
    • Protective flexion withdrawal pattern associated with LE pain
    • Muscle imbalances
    • Loss of sensory input from foot in WBing 2
what contractures are common in a transfemoral amputee
What contractures are common in a transfemoral amputee?
  • Transfemoral
    • Hip flexion
    • Hip abduction
    • Hip lateral rotation
how can pt prevent contractures in mr howard
How can PT prevent contractures in Mr. Howard?
  • Maintain knee in ext
    • Bedavoid use of pillows under residual limb
    • W/Csliding board, elevating amputee hanger; avoid long periods of sitting
  • Lie prone
  • PNF w/CR ,HMP/US, manual stretching, AROM/PROM
  • HEP (IP & OP) 2
prevention of contractures
Prevention of Contractures

May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996, p. 87.

strengthening for le amputee
Strengthening For LE Amputee
  • Maximization of overall UE/LE/TRUNK strength and muscular endurance for safe, energy-efficient prosthetic gait, helps prevent contractures, maintains mobility
  • Post-operative muscle strengthening consists of isometric contractions within a limited ROM at joint proximal to amputation to minimize stress across incision
    • Watch breathingno valsalva!
    • Recommend 10 second cx, followed by 5-10 seconds rest for 10 reps.\
    • AROM of unaffected limbs day 1, affected-limb day 1-3; bed mobility/transfers day 2
  • As wound healing progresses, include large arcs of motion, active resistive exercise, isokinetics, eccentric, etc. 6
what should pt poc include for mr howard
What should PT POC include for Mr. Howard?
  • Hip ext., hip abductors/adductors, knee ext.
    • hip flexors, knee flexors as needed (may need to stretch these short muscles)
  • General strengthening/ROM of trunk and UE’s important (esp. back ext. and abdominals, shoulder depressors and elbow ext.)
  • Aerobic ex. to increase endurance
  • mobility
  • Posture-COG shifted up, back and toward remaining extremity
  • Skin integrityprep residual limb/care remaining
  • Balance 2
tt exercises
TT Exercises

May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996, p. 88.

tf exercises
TF Exercises

May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996, p. 89.

key points
Key Points
  • PT will ideally begin BEFORE pt. has amputation
  • After a LE amputation, PT focus on pre-prosthetic training for functional mobility, residual AND remaining limb skin care
  • Questions?
references
References:
  • American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to Physical Therapy Practice. 2nd ed. Alexandria, Va: American Physical Therapy Association; 2001.
  • May, BJ. Amputation and Prosthetics: A Case Study Approach. Philadelphia: Davis; 1996.
  • Northwestern University Prosthetics Training Handouts, 2003.
  • O’Sullivan SB & Schmitz TJ. Physical Rehabilitation: Assessment and Treatment. 4thed. Philadelphia: Davis; 2001.
  • Seymour, R. Prosthetics and Orthotics: Lower Limb and Spinal. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2002.