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A Seismic Design Consideration of Oil and Gas Transmission Systems in Taiwan. CTCI Corporation J.S. Chung *1 / C.L. Liu *2 2003/9/3. *1: Piping engineer of CTCI Corporation *2: Manager of Piping Department of CTCI Corporation. Introduction Gas and Oil Transmission Systems in Taiwan
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J.S. Chung *1/ C.L. Liu *2
*1: Piping engineer of CTCI Corporation
*2: Manager of Piping Department of CTCI Corporation
Gas and Oil Transmission Systems in Taiwan
Identification of Seismic Hazards
The Codes for Seismic Design
Seismic Design Philosophy
Damage Control During Earthquake
Conclusion and SuggestionA Seismic Design Considerationof Oil and Gas Transmission Systems in Taiwan
Because of rapid economic gross in Taiwan,today oil and gas transmission systems tend to be underground、concentrated and complicated. The leak of tanks with flammable or explosive contents and damage of oiland gas transmission systems due to earthquake may result in a great loss of human life and property
CTCI corporation is the leading engineering company in Taiwan. Most of the oil and gas transmission systems in Taiwan are designed by CTCI.Introduction
Offshore pipelines for gas：The 36” offshore pipeline is approximately 240 km in length from Yuan-an to Tung-shiao and combines with onshore pipeline.
Offshore pipelines for oil：To transfer the crude oil from offshore of the Saloon and Ta-Lin-Pu to the tanks through offshore pipelines.
Onshore pipelines for oil：To be built along the highway,the pipelines belong to CPC and FPCC.Gas and Oil Transmission System in Taiwan
Pipeline systems still keep functionability after 921 Chi-Chi earthquake.Identification of Seismic Hazards
8 & 4 inch low and moderate pressure transmission pipelines were failure after 921 earthquake.
Piping failure due to differential fault movement and ground rupture.
Bending failure of piping supported from bridge structure after bridge crushed.
Threaded piping joints are easier to leak than butt welded joints when subjected to the effect of earthquake.Identification of Seismic Hazards
(Seismic Zone in Taiwan)
Two Sections： 0.33g(black),0.23g(white)Seismic Design Philosophy-Seismic Design force
Preliminary Route Selection
Crossing Faulting line
FinishSeismic Design Philosophy-Design Procedure
Soil and Pipeline Interactive Zone
Aboveground PipingSeismic Design Philosophy- Seismic Analysis for Pipeline
To perform seabed investigation in preliminary route selection stage is necessary to choose a safety route.
Echo Sounder/Bathymetric Data
Side -Scan Sonar
Magnetic Anomaly Detection
The items of seismic analysis for offshore pipeline are same as onshore pipelineSeismic Design Philosophy- Seismic Design for Offshore Pipeline
To take the following methods to minimize the hazard in the event that a leak or rupture occurs in the pipeline after big earthquakes.
To install a block valve and vent stackDamage Control During Earthquake
It is difficult to repair an offshore pipeline due to require to mobilize repair equipment such as lay-barge,mechanical connectors and survey vessel,etc. A small pinhole or puncture in pipeline can use a special clamp to control leakage.But,a full rupture resulting in a shutdown must cut a spool pipe to replace it.Damage Control During Earthquake
Now, new installed pipeline systems have been designed to withstand a seismic capability to earthquake magnitude of 6(0.33g). To ensure the integrity and maintain functionability of existing pipeline systems is considerably difficult during big earthquakes occur. It is necessary to make further assessment of existing pipeline systems.
Up to now, there isn’t a standard or code to specify the design methods , parameters, and design criteria of the seismic design for the oil and gas pipelines in the industry, excluding of some guidelines provided by Committee of ASCE. The engineers can follow its instruction for seismic design.Conclusion and Suggestion