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Wind Power– Can it make sense in Michigan ? . Tom Hewson Energy Ventures Analysis Inc Arlington Virginia [email protected] March 2003. Michigan Wind Power Overview.

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wind power can it make sense in michigan

Wind Power– Can it make sense in Michigan ?

Tom Hewson

Energy Ventures Analysis Inc

Arlington Virginia

[email protected]

March 2003

michigan wind power overview
Michigan Wind Power Overview
  • Existing Michigan renewable power generation is dominated by biomass and hydroelectric. Less than 1% of existing state renewable generation is from wind power (estimated 3,600 MWh in 2002).
  • Michigan mostly has wind resources of class 3 or lower, making wind power production costs high and non cost-competitive vs. conventional fossil power sources.
  • Demand for high cost wind power has been very limited in Michigan because of its high cost. Two utilities offer wind power purchase options.
  • Consumers Power Green Power Program. Michigan Public Service Commission authorized Consumers Power to supply up to 50MW of wind power to consumers willing to pay 3.2c/kWh higher cost. Only 500 consumers representing 2,800 MWh (0.008% of CMS 2000 sales) of load has signed up for program. Therefore, CMS current program contract demand is met by 2 WTGs-1.8 MW.
  • Traverse City Green Rate Program City green rate program (1.58c/kWh premium) fully subscribed but city has no plans to expand program beyond the 1 WTG- 600 kW. WTG output was 33% less and production costs 50% higher than projected.
michigan wind power overview3
Michigan Wind Power Overview
  • Local ordinances for wind power development should be designed to protect public health & safety and minimize adverse environmental impacts. Elements of ordinance should address:
  • Setbacks (Safety, wind access, scenic)
  • Safety & security
  • Fire protection
  • Noise
  • Interconnection & electric distribution facilities
  • Unsafe & inoperable wind energy facilities
  • Abandonment & Site Reclamation
  • Interference with navigational systems
  • Soil erosion
  • Certification
  • Monitoring
  • Time related conditions
  • Height limits
Existing Wind Capacity is Highly Concentrated 6 States* account for 88% of existing capacity5 States accounted for 98% of 2000 wind generationWind power supplied only 0.15% of US 2000 power output that is far less than the output of Michigan’s Monroe station
why is wind power capacity so concentrated
Why is Wind Power Capacity So Concentrated?
  • Few states offer significant green power incentives to offset higher wind production costs
  • Renewable portfolio standards– Mandated purchases from non-cost competitive renewable sources (California, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa)
  • Direct state payments to offset portion of higher production costs (California, Minnesota)
  • Net metering (California, Iowa, Texas, Oregon, Washington)
  • High quality wind resources (>Class 4) limited
  • Large available land area-
  • Rule of thumb had been 40 acres/turbine to avoid wind turbulence interference. AWEA believes 75 acres/turbine required for larger new turbine designs. To displace energy from CMS’ smallest coal unit would require turbines covering 100 sq-mi.
US Wind Resources-The higher the wind class, the lower the projected production costDOE’s NEMS Model considers Class 4 or higher winds needed
wind power in michigan
Wind Power in Michigan
  • Only 3 operating wind turbines
  • Traverse City- 1 WTG– 600 kW
  • Mackinaw City- 2 WTG- 1.8 MW
  • 48.2 MW planned from 6 projects already contracted by CMS but will not be activated until Green Power program demand grows.
  • High production costs
  • Traverse City-- 15.1% average capacity factor (6/96-10/02)– TCLP Green Rate subscribers pay 1.58c/kWh premium (25% more) for wind power. Actual power output 33% less than projected.
  • Mackinaw City– Supplies Consumers Power Green Power Demand – 2,800 MWh in 2002 (18% CF)– Customers pay 3.2c/kWh premium (46% more) for wind power
  • Low project capacity factors indicate current sites likely have low grade wind resources
  • Non-detectable environmental benefit in Michigan since wind backs out already very clean, low emitting Michigan power generation
wind power siting issues
Wind Power Siting Issues
  • Electric Transmission
  • Transmission costs high because wind variability makes control difficult & unpredictable. Wind has poor transmission capacity utilization.
  • Large Footprint
  • Wind has the largest area requirement per unit capacity of any power source. DOE estimates average 40 acres/turbine (75 acres for newer larger design) .
  • Need access to WTG for construction and maintenance
  • Environmental Health & Safety
  • Aesthetics
  • Effects on Local Property Values– Few studies exist
  • Lincoln County WI study found wind property values declined by 26% within 1 mile and by 18 % > 1 mile.
  • Assessed values declined significantly for property adjoining Mackinaw City WTG after it started operation.
  • Traverse City adjoining property for sale but languishes on market.
  • Leased wind property easements often can limit owner’s ability to develop land for >30 yrs (in some cases even if project not built).
wind siting issues
Wind Siting Issues
  • Local ordinances for wind power development needed to protect public health & safety, minimize adverse environmental impacts and achieve land use plan
  • Noise– Address through setting minimum setbacks and limits on dBA, dB (for low frequency noise) and sound penalties. 45-50 dBA
  • Aerodynamic: Low frequency, impulsive, broadband
  • Mechanical: tonal
  • Visibility– Address through limiting allowable sites and setting minimum project setbacks and height restrictions. Setbacks can reach >2500 ft
  • Shadow Flicker– Address though minimum setbacks and/or WTG location
  • Safety (blade throw, ice throw, structural failure, ground clearance)– Use Setback & minimum clearance requirements
  • Wildlife– Minimize through eliminating sited along/near major bird migration paths, major nesting areas and sensitive areas.
  • Unsafe & inoperable wind energy facilities– Require bond to cover cost of removal & site restoration.
  • Interference with navigational systems– Location away from airport flight paths & locking mechanisms to limit airport radar interference
  • Soil erosion– Plan to control soil erosion from WTG and access roads
  • Safety Lighting for aviation
  • Non-compliance penalties– Must remove facility if out-of-compliance