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Topic 5: sense . Introduction to Semantics. Definition . The sense of an expression is its indispensable hard core of meaning. The sum of sense properties and sense relations with other expressions. Sense properties. Analyticity Syntheticity Contradiction. Sense property 1: analyticity.

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topic 5 sense

Topic 5: sense

Introduction to Semantics

definition
Definition
  • The sense of an expression is its indispensable hard core of meaning.
  • The sum of sense properties and sense relations with other expressions.
sense properties
Sense properties
  • Analyticity
  • Syntheticity
  • Contradiction
sense property 1 analyticity
Sense property 1: analyticity
  • The sense of an analytic sentence is necessarily true.
  • Example
    • Bachelors are unmarried.
sense property 2 syntheticity
Sense property 2: syntheticity
  • The sense of an synthetic sentence is either true or false.
  • Example
    • Bachelors don’t know how to form a long-term relationship.
sense property 3 contradiction
Sense property 3: contradiction
  • The sense of a contradictory sentence is necessarily false.
  • Example
    • Bachelors are married.
sense properties note
Sense properties: note
  • Imperative and interrogative sentences cannot be analytic or synthetic.
    • They cannot be true or false.
  • Example:
    • Are you a student?
    • Halt!
sense relations similarities
Sense relations: similarities
  • Synonymy
  • Paraphrase
  • Hoponymy
synonymy and paraphrase
Synonymy and paraphrase
  • Synonymy/synonym
    • The relationship between two predicates with the same sense
  • Paraphrase
    • Two sentences share the same proposition.
hyponymy hyponym
Hyponymy/hyponym
  • The meaning of one predicate is included in the meaning of the other predicate.
    • Red, crimson, scarlet
sense relations dissimilarity
Sense relations: dissimilarity
  • Antonymy/antonym
  • Contradictory propositions
antonymy binary antonyms
Antonymy: binary antonyms
  • Binary/complementary antonyms
    • Two predicates with two totally incompatible truth values.
    • If A is true, it cannot be false.
      • Alive-dead
antonymy converses
Antonymy: Converses
  • The opposite relationship of the two predicates is not semantically absolute (i.e., not binary/ complimentary).
  • The oppositeness is based on the relationship of the two predicates
    • Buy-sell
antonymy gradable antonyms
Antonymy: gradable antonyms
  • There are semantic values on the continuous semantic scale.
    • Hot-cold
    • Always-(often)–(sometimes)-(seldom)-never
sense relations 3 ambiguity
Sense relations (3): ambiguity
  • Lexical ambiguity
    • When a word has more than one sense
  • Structural ambiguity
    • When a sentence has two or more paraphrases.
a word phrase is ambiguous
A word/phrase is ambiguous
  • If it has two or more synonyms that are not themselves synonyms of each other.
    • Plane
      • Airplane
      • Flat surface
types of word ambiguity
Types of word ambiguity
  • Homonym
  • Polysemy
homonym
Homonym
  • The senses of a predicate are remotely or unlikely related to each other.
  • Bank
    • Financial institution
    • The side of a river
polysemy
Polysemy
  • The senses of a predicate are closely related conceptually.
  • The extension of semantic concepts.
    • Fork
structural ambiguity
Structural ambiguity
  • Multiple paraphrases of a sentence
  • The chicken is ready to eat
    • The chicken wants to eat something.
    • We eat the chicken.
example
Example
  • The boy left Mary with a broken heart.
slide23

S

NP

VP

Det

N

NP

V

N

PP

P

NP

The

boy

left

Mary

with

a broken heart

slide24

S

NP

VP

Det

N

V

NP

PP

P

NP

N

The

boy

left

Mary

with

a broken heart