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The Cray #1 Computer Internet Research

The Cray #1 Computer Internet Research

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The Cray #1 Computer Internet Research

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  1. The Cray #1 ComputerInternet Research

  2. When we hear Cray, we think of…

  3. Seymour Cray (1925-1996) electrical engineer WW II veteran founded Control Data Corporation in 1957 designed and built the CDC 6600 in 1965 designed and built the Cray #1 in 1976 founded Cray Research (1972) founded Cray Computer Corporation (1983) We should think of…

  4. Prior to Cray #1 • CDC 6600 (1965) “First Supercomputer” • Take a peak: http://www.nersc.gov/~deboni/Computer.history/cdc_6600.html • RISC architecture • 400,000 transistors • CPU could handle 60-bit words • Memory: 2 MB, one 60-bit word per 0.1 microsecond • User Interface: CRT

  5. CDC 6600 • 1 instruction per 100 nanoseconds • 10 function units • Instruction buffer could hold FFT code • up to 20 peripheral processors • I/O functions • quirk: job time – 5 octal digits … 9.1 hours • http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/CDC-6600-R-M.html

  6. CDC 7600 • CDC 7600… 4 times faster, due to pipelining • http://www.cbi.umn.edu/exhibits/cray/cray7600.html • Cray left CDC in 1972 to start Cray Research.

  7. Cray #1 • Clock Speed: 80 MHz • 150 MFLOPS • GRAPE: 1 TeraFLOP • Memory: 8 MB • 1976-installed at Los Alamos (8.6 million dollars) • http://home.iae.nl/users/mhx/flops.html

  8. More specs… Cray #1 • 200,000 specialized IC’s • Circular C shape • easy to interconnect components of computer • No wire could be longer than 4 feet.

  9. Cray #1 Uses • Aircraft Design (A Cray “pays for itself”) • Weather Modeling • Nuclear Simulations • Code-breaking

  10. Cray #1 Registers • V Registers – for vector processing (vector add/subtract) • S Registers – for scalar processing • T Registers – intermediate storage for scalar operations. • A Registers -- for loop counting, I/O control, 8 24-bit registers • Let’s look at the manual!http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/CRAY-1-HardRefMan/CRAY-1-HRM.html

  11. This sucka gets hot! • Ya need Freon, baby! • Cray pioneered the use of Freon to cool his supercomputers. • http://research.microsoft.com/users/gbell/craytalk/sld062.htm

  12. The End • Cray #2: http://research.microsoft.com/users/gbell/craytalk/sld067.htm • Cray MP • Anyone want a GRAPE? http://grape.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~makino/grape4.html

  13. References • http://www.thocp.net/hardware/cray_1.htm • http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/home/tef/cray/obit.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDC_6600 • http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/vs-cdc-6600.html#Architecture • http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/dsh/artifacts/GC-CRAY1.htm • http://www.thocp.net/hardware/cray_1.htm