MIS Management Information System
MANAGEMENT • Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. • Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. • Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human-resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
MANAGEMENT • Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: • planning • organizing • leading • coordinating • controlling • staffing • motivating
Information • As a concept has a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint,communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern,perception, and representation.
System • System (from Latinsystēma, in turn from Greek ) is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole.
MIS • Management Information • Management information system helps middle level management planning, controlling and decision making. • The data stored can be used or manipulated to produce differently defined reports from pre-defined reports. • It can be presented graphically or pictorically
DEFINITION • An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities those were planned and executed.
DEFINITION • According to Philip Kotler • "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers
OVERVIEW • At the start, in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of theaccounting system and with some additional statistics, and gave limited and delayed information on management performance.
OVERVIEW • the term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to): decision support systems, resource and people management applications,project management and database retrieval application.
OVERVIEW • In their infancy, business computers were used for the practical business of computing the payroll and keeping track of accounts payableand accounts receivable. As applications were developed that provided managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise,
MIS = IS ??? • The terms MIS and information system are often confused. • Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. • MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. • MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support.
Various Advantages of Information Management Systems 1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision – making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations. • 2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
Various Advantages of Information Management Systems • 3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures • 4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization .
Various Advantages of Information Management Systems • 5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost . • 6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information
TECHNICAL APPROACHES COMPUTER SCIENCE OPERATIONS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT SCIENCE MIS SOCIOLOGY POLITICAL SCIENCE PSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES
Management Information Systems By Sarfraz Haider
Data Versus Information • In everyday language data and information are used interchangeably. For example, the Oxford American Dictionary defines data as: "facts or information to be used as a basis of discussing or deciding something." At the same time information is defined as "facts told or discovered or facts to be fed to a computer". In both definition, data and information are assumed to be one and same concept.
Data are collection of observations, which may or may not be true. Thus data may not be facts. Data become information when they are processed. To process data one needs to • (1) clean the data from errors and reduce sources of unreliability, • (2) analyze data to make it relevant to decision at hand, and • (3) organize data in ways that help understanding.
Role of Informationin Organizations • Organizations collect and distribute information. In the process, they also distort it. Some distortions are intentional. • Sometimes employees are asked to summarize data and report it to their supervisors. By definition, summarizing data means leaving some parts of it out. This is one type of distortion that is intentional. • Other times, organizations distort data so much as to changes its meaning and value. This section describes the importance of information within organization and how information is acquired and changed within organizations.
In this definition, information is "meaningful data." Data are the building blocks and information is the finished house. The raw materials are useless as a pile but once organized into a structure they become someone's home. Likewise data are useless for managers unless organized into information.
Organization • Basically, an organization is a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals. Business organizations can range in size from two people to tens of thousands.
Organization as a System • It helps to think of organizations as systems. Simply put, a system is an organized collection of parts that are highly integrated in order to accomplish an overall goal. The system has various inputs which are processed to produce certain outputs, that together, accomplish the overall goal desired by the organization.
Organization as a System • There is ongoing feedback among these various parts to ensure they remain aligned to accomplish the overall goal of the organization. There are several classes of systems, ranging from very simple frameworks all the way to social systems, which are the most complex. Organizations are, of course, social systems.
Organization as a System • Systems have inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. To explain, inputs to the system include resources such as raw materials, money, technologies and people. These inputs go through a process where they're aligned, moved along and carefully coordinated, ultimately to achieve the goals set for the system. Outputs are tangible results produced by processes in the system, such as products or services for consumers.
Management again • Management is the process of • leading, • controlling, • planning, • and organizing. The most important thing managers do is make quick, accurate, and decisive decisions. The manager is important because he/she is the leader of the organization that leads people to get things done.
Organization and information • The issue of information requirements of an organization and their specifications span two isolated territories. One territory is that of organization and management and the other belongs to technicians. There is a considerable gap between these two territories. Research in requirements engineering (technician's side) has primarily concentrated on designing and developing formal languages to document and analyze user requirements, once they have been determined.
Organizational Structure • Organizational structure is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so they cooperate and work together to achieve organizational goals. • Organizations are • Social entities • Goal oriented • Deliberately structured • Linked to the external environment
Components of an Organization • The environment influences organizational design. When uncertainty exists, the ability to respond quickly and creatively is important; when the environment is stable, an organization improves performance by making attitudes and behaviors predictable. Creativity and predictability are fostered by certain structures and cultures. • Task - an organization’s mission, purpose, or goal for existing • People - the human resources of the organization
Components of an Organization • Structure - the manner in which an organization’s work is designed at the micro level; how departments, divisions, & the overall organization are designed at the macro level • Technology - the intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet
Information System • Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization's manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization.
Levels of decision Making • Strategic Management: • Set long-term objectives, allocate resources • Tactical Management: • Monitor performance, make adjustments • Operational: • How to carry out specific day-to-day tasks
Types of Decisions • Structured: • A routine decision whose factors are known • Semi- structured: • A risky decision in which one or more factors is • unknown • Unstructured: • A unique decision for which the relevant factors are • unknown; entails uncertainty and requires judgment
6 Major Information Sys: Types • by Support Provided • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) • Office (Automation) Systems (OAS) • Knowledge (Work) Systems (KWS) • Management Information Systems (MIS) • Decision Support Systems (DSS) • Executive Support Systems (ESS)
Management Information Systems (MIS) • Mainly support tactical management level • Deals with structured/semi-structured decisions • Generally reporting and control oriented • Little analytical capability • Input: data stored in DB by TPS • Processing: simple models • Output: summary and exception reports • Example: inventory control systems, sales performance analysis, • pricing systems • TPS KWS OAS MIS DSS EIS
Computer Based Information Sys: • Computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization. Computer-based information systems are in the field of information technology.
a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions, as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions
Decision Making • Decision Making • Decision making involves choosing between two or more alternatives • − Remember that not making a decision is a decision • − It has four major elements
Decision Making • − Problem definition: clearly there are more issues, questions, and problems than individuals or society has the time or resources to confront. • − Problems are plentiful; attention is scarce. • − In order for problems to get attention they have to first get on the policy agenda • − As the problem emerges and gains attention, it also tends to gain focus and take shape • − See problem definition notes below.
Decision Making • − Information search: The definition between problem definition and information is never sharp. When we are vaguely aware of some problem, our first step is often to learn more about it. This learning process often gives the problem focus. • − Time is often a big factor in information search. When time is short we often satisfice rather than optimize (see discussion on bounded rationality below).
Decision Making • − Choice: Weighing options and selecting among alternatives are often the visible part of decision-making processes. • − However, choices are rarely clear and when clear alternatives are know, the consequences of these actions is often poorly understood. • − Similarly, our preferences are rarely clear or constant when viewed over time.
Decision Making • − Evaluation: Decisions do not end with a choice among alternatives. Few choices are final and most are continually reconsidered in light of new information. • − Even if choices are not repeated, current choices become precedents for future decision