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Intro 1

Intro 1. Climate and Vegetation Russia’s Climates and Vegetation High Latitude Climates Tundra Subarctic Living in a Cold Climate Mid-Latitude Climates Humid Continental War and Winter Steppe. Landforms and Resources Varied and Vast Lands

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Intro 1

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  1. Intro 1

  2. Climate and Vegetation Russia’s Climates and Vegetation High Latitude Climates Tundra Subarctic Living in a Cold Climate Mid-Latitude Climates Humid Continental War and Winter Steppe

  3. Landforms and Resources Varied and Vast Lands Mountains and Plateaus Plains Areas Coasts, Seas, and Lakes Rivers Volga River Siberian River Natural Resources Mineral Resources Soil and Forest Land Fishing Industry

  4. I can . . . • 1. Analyze the affects of Russia’s size • 2. Identify Russia’s natural resources

  5. People and Their Environment Managing Resources Pollution Nuclear Waste Chernobyl

  6. Landforms and Resources

  7. Russia and the Republics occupy nearly one-sixth of the earth’s land surface.

  8. Stretching across parts of Europe and Asia, Russia is a huge land of plains divided and bordered by mountains and plateaus. The Urals are old, worn-down mountains that mark the boundary between European and Asian parts of Russia.In the south the Caucasus Mountains stretch across the land between the Black and Caspian seas. Mountain ranges also form a rugged natural boundary between Russia and China.

  9. A Vast and Varied Land (cont.) Section 1-7 (pages 345–348) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  10. The North European Plain covers most of European Russia. The southern part of the plain has rich soil, and about 75 percent of the Russian population lives there. The Ural Mountains separate the North European Plain from the West Siberian Plain, which covers almost one million square miles. Because the plain tilts northward, its rivers flow toward the Arctic Ocean, taking water away and making the land more arid and less desirable.

  11. Russia has the longest continuous coastline of any country, at 23,400 miles. The coastline touches the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas.Most of Russia’s ports are frozen for at least part of the year.

  12. Lake Baikal, in southern Siberia, is a freshwater lake. It is the deepest lake in the world (More than a mile deep). This lake holds nearly 20 percent of the world’s fresh water. Though Lake Baikal has some pollution, most of it is remarkably clean.

  13. A Vast and Varied Land (cont.) Section 1-11 (pages 345–348) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  14. The Caspian Sea is really a saltwater lake. It is the largest inland sea in the world. The Black Sea is Russia’s warm-water outlet to the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Rivers (cont.) Section 1-16 (pages 348–349) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  16. The Volga is the fourth-longest river in Russia and the longest river in Europe. Draining much of Russia’s North European Plain, the Volga River and its canals link the Moscow area to the Caspian, Black, and Baltic Seas.

  17. Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  18. Section 1-17 Siberian rivers flow north to the Arctic Ocean. Blocked by ice, meltwaters often flood the land and create vast swamps.

  19. Russia has huge mineral resources. It is especially rich in mineral fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal. Russia’s rivers make it a leading producer of hydroelectric power. A rich, fertile “Black Earth Belt” stretches from Ukraine to southwestern Russia, supplying the country with grains, sugar beets, and other produce. About one-fifth of the world’s forested land is in Siberia. Russian forests supply much of the world’s timber. Taiga is the world’s largest forest. Fish is a staple food in Russia and also an important export. Many resources in Russia and the Republics are in hard-to-reach regions with brutal climates.

  20. Natural Resources (cont.) Section 1-21 (pages 349–350) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  21. Climate and Vegetation

  22. Section 2-1 I can... • List Russia’s major climates and their affects on Russia’s population

  23. Section 2-4

  24. Section 2-5 The coldest temperature ever recorded in Asia was in Russia. On February 6, 1933, the temperature in the Siberian town of Oimekon was -90ºF. The same temperature was recorded on February 7, 1892, in Verkhoyansk, another Siberian location.

  25. High Latitude Climates Much of Russia lies with in the higher latitudes near the arctic circle. Russia’s high latitude climates feature extremely cold winters and short summers. The tundra, a vast, treeless plain, covers about 10 percent of Russia. The subarctic lies just south of the tundra. The slightly warm subarctic air can hold more moisture. The subarctic has snow for up to 250 days of the year.The largest forest on the earth, the Taiga, is found in the Subarctic region. It is composed primarily of coniferous trees. Many fur-bearing animals live there, including the sable, fox, and ermine.

  26. Most of Russia has a harsh climate with long, cold winters and short, relatively cool summers. A major influence on Russian climates is Continentality. This refers to the effect on the climate of being far from the moderating influence of the sea. Because of its enormous size, much of the region is hundreds of miles away from surrounding oceans. Continentality affects the amount of precipitation a region gets as well as its temperatures.

  27. High Latitude Climates (cont.) Section 2-11 (pages 352–353)

  28. Most of the North European Plain and some of southern Siberia have a humid continental climate, with long, snowy, relatively mild winters. This area has mixed coniferous-deciduous forests.

  29. The steppe (Semi-Arid) climate region has dry summers and long, cold, dry winters. Its rich soil enables a variety of grasses and plants to flourish

  30. Mid-Latitude Climates(cont.) Section 2-15

  31. People and their Environment I can... 3. List Russia’s major climates and their affects on Russia’s population

  32. The harsh climate of Russia and the Republics has been both an obstacle and an advantage to the region’s inhabitants. Attempts to overcome the region’s geographic limits have sometimes had negative consequences. Describe some of the effects of pollution on the people of Russia. Identify some of the environmental challenges Russia faces.

  33. Section 2-4

  34. Most of Russia’s population lives west of the Ural Mountains, but more than 32 million people make their homes in Siberia.Siberia is a vast expansion of fridged and underpopulated land in southeast Russia. Distance from the ocean also results in extreme temperatures. In Siberia, average monthly temperatures rarely get higher than 50°F and can drop below –90°F. The long stretches of cold weather in the region have affected daily life. For example, Siberians use their frozen rivers as roads for part of the year.

  35. The climate of Siberia presents unique challenges to its inhabitants. Scientists have recorded the most variable temperatures on earth in Siberia. Temperatures in the region are so consistently low that the region is covered by a layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost. This frozen layer can reach depths of up to 1,500 feet. Warmer weather melts ice and snow and leaves pools of water. These pools become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and black flies. Soon, huge, black clouds of insects are plaguing residents. Siberia’s climate also affects construction. Permafrost makes the ground iron hard. However, heated buildings thaw the permafrost. As the ground thaws, buildings sink, tilt, and fall over.

  36. But sometimes, the climate helps the Russians. In the spring of 1812, the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte decided to extend his control over Russia. When Napoleon arrived in Moscow it was September, and the Russian winter was coming. The citizens of Moscow had burned the city, so that Napoleon’s army would find no shelter. Napoleon retreated from Moscow. Russia’s cold climate was helpful in World War II because Russian soldiers, who were used to the cold, fought well against the German soldiers, who were unprepared for a brutal winter.

  37. At the end of the 1800s, travel through Siberia was dangerous and slow. Russia’s czar ordered the building of a railroad from Moscow east to Vladivostok. The distance to be covered was more than 5,700 miles. Faster travel was one goal, but Russian officials also wanted to populate the region so that they could profit from its resources. The Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed in 1904.

  38. By the 1990s, 40 percent of Russia’s land was “ecologically stressed”–heavily polluted. This damage resulted from Soviet-era disregard for the effects of industrialization on the environment. Russia has one of the world’s largest supplies of freshwater, but much of it is polluted with industrial waste. Russia’s soil has been damaged by toxic waste dumps, oil spills, and pesticides sprayed on crops. Industries and fossil fuel emissions have polluted the air.

  39. Pollution(cont.) Section 2-11 (pages 397–399)

  40. Section 2-5 Chernobyl is not the only nuclear accident that has occurred in the world. At least six accidents have occurred in and around nuclear facilities in the United States. The most serious and best known occurred at the Three Mile Island facility in Middletown, Pennsylvania, in 1979. In 1999, a nuclear accident in Japan exposed people to high levels of radiation.

  41. Nuclear waste poses a great danger to Russia’s population. Between 1949 and 1987, the Soviet Union set off more than 600 nuclear explosions. The Soviets dumped some nuclear materials into the Baltic and Bering Seas.

  42. At Chernobyl, a town in Ukraine, a 1986 fire in a nuclear reactor released tons of radioactive particles into the air. The wind carried this radiation over great distances, contaminating the environment in other countries.Eight thousand people eventually died of radiation poisoning.Many more have been made seriously ill.

  43. Twenty-eight nuclear reactors still operate in Russia, providing much of the country’s electricity. Making these reactors safe and secure in case of another disastrous fire is a concern of the international community.

  44. Pollution(cont.) Section 2-16

  45. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

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