VENTILATION. NFPA Standard 1001 Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002. Objectives. Understand ventilation as a fire service tool Know the principles, advantages, and effects of ventilation (NFPA 1001:3-3.10a). Objectives.
NFPA Standard 1001
Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications - 2002
Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, Chapter 18
It relieves the structure of heat.
It channels smoke out of the structure.
It removes toxic gases from the structure.Principles, Advantages, and Effects of Ventilation
Vertical ventilation is the removal of heat and smoke through vertical channels.
Horizontal ventilation is the removal of smoke and gases through horizontal openings.Considerations for Proper Ventilation
Mechanical through vertical channels.
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)
Positive pressureTypes of Ventilation
Hydraulic through vertical channels.
Fog stream out a window or other opening
Smooth bore with partially opened nozzle out a window or other openingTypes of Ventilation
Break windows through vertical channels.
Rope and a tool
For ventilating upper floor windows from above
Hook or pike pole
Portable ladder through vertical channels.
Aerial ladder tip
Negative pressure ventilation
Positive pressure ventilation
Introduction opening should be larger than exhaust opening
Cone of air should be larger than openingVentilation Techniques
Quickest way is to use building features through vertical channels.
When making holes, cut directly over the fire when possibleRoof Ventilation
Types of cuts through vertical channels.
Produces hole as large as neededRoof Ventilation
Louver cut through vertical channels.
A series of cuts parallel to the roof joists, keeping them in the middle. When opened, they look like hinged louvers
Good for Q-decking over open web bar joistsRoof Ventilation
Trench cut or Strip cut through vertical channels.
Defensive in design and execution
Used to cut off fire extension
Kerf cut – cutting blade lowered into roof material and pulled out
Triangular cut – three intersecting kerf cutsRoof Ventilation
Unfamiliar building layout
Partially broken windows
Dropped or hanging ceilings
Ventilation is a tool that is to be used like any other tool. It must be understood, used to its advantage, and applied carefully.