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2012 INTERNATIONAL ASIAN SUMMER SCHOOL IN LINKED DATA  IASLOD 2012, August 13-17 , 2012, KAIST, Daejeon , Korea. General Introduction for Semantic Web and Linked Open Data. Hideaki Takeda National Institute of Informatics takeda @ nii.ac.jp. Semantic Web and Linked Data.

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General Introduction for Semantic Web and Linked Open Data


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    1. 2012 INTERNATIONALASIAN SUMMER SCHOOL IN LINKED DATA  IASLOD 2012, August 13-17, 2012, KAIST, Daejeon, Korea General Introduction for Semantic Web and Linked Open Data Hideaki Takeda National Institute of Informatics takeda@nii.ac.jp

    2. Semantic Web and Linked Data • Semantic Web • What is Semantic Web • How to realize Semantic Web • Metadata • RDF • RDFS • OWL • Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    3. Semantic Web

    4. The Aim of The Semantic Web • "The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation." The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 2001, Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila • The Semantic Web is a vision: the idea of having data on the web defined and linked in a way that it can be used by machines not just for display purposes, but for automation, integration and reuse of data across various applications. http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/

    5. Automation Integration Re-use of data 自動化 統合 データの再利用 Semantic Web • Realization of various information exchanging via Web

    6. Next Generation Web? • Evolution of Web • HTML: Web for Display • XML: Web with Syntax • ?? : Web with Semantics • Why should we embed semantics into Web? From • Web for Human To • Web for human and machines cf. Web for machines

    7. A brief introduction of XML • Limitation of HTML • Chaos by mixture of displaying and text structures • e.g., • <h3></h3> should be used for “the third-level heading”, but are often used just for bigger fonts • <b></b> is specifying “bold” , not “emphasis”. • Fixed Structure • e.g., • If you need <h7></h7>…. • I need a structure just for my data <h1> A list of lectures</h1> <h2> Knowledge Sharing Systems</h2> <h3> Lecturer: Hideaki Takeda</h3> <h3>Wednesday 3rd</h3>

    8. XML • XML(eXtensible Markup Language) • Can define original tags • Represent logical structures of data • DTD • Do not include style information • XST <lecturelist> <lecture> <title id=1234> Knowledge Sharing Systems</title> <lecturer> Hideaki Takeda</lecturer> <schedule> <week>Wednesday</week> <time>3rd</time> </lecture> ... </lecturelist>

    9. Whey is XML not sufficient? <person> <name> Hideaki Takeda</name> <age> 20</age> </person> <個人> <名前>Hideaki Takeda</名前> <年齢> 20</年齢> </個人> • What are specified by “person” and “name” ? • Is “name” and “名前” the same? • Is this description sufficient as a description for “person”? • … • In short, syntax alone cannot solve these problems

    10. Architecture for the Semantic Web Tim Berners-Leehttp://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/09-lcs-sweb-tbl/

    11. How to describe “meaning”? • Need to describe “information on information” • “Meaning of something” is a description (“meaning”) to a description (“something”) in computers • Metadata • Data about data • Need to architecture for common understanding • Syntax (language or scheme) • Vocabulary (ontology)

    12. Metadata • What is metadata? • Data about data • What one can say about any information object • What is described as metadata? • Content relates to what the object contains or is about, and is intrinsic to an information object. • Context indicates the who, what, why, where, how aspects associated with the object's creation and is extrinsic to an information object. • Structure relates to the formal set of associations within or among individual information objects and can be intrinsic or extrinsic Setting the State, Anne J.Gilliand-Swetland, Introduction to Metadata – Pathways to Digital Information, Murthsa Baca (ed.), Getty Information Institute.

    13. Metadata • Metadata to individual information objects • Bibliography,Dublin Core • Metadata to part or structure of information objects • Drawings,RDF,RDFS,OWL Type:tractor Owner:Taro Product year:2002 Body Axis: Connect body to wheel Wheel

    14. A Layer model for Semantic Web • RDF (Resource Description Framework) • The most primitive model for metadata description • SVO model • Entity-Relation Model • Semantic net • RDF Schema • Addition of “concept” to RDF • class-subclass,constraints • OWL • More general concept description language • Logical consistency • Various class expressions • Various constraints • DAML-S • Descriptions on processes Tim Berners-Leehttp://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/09-lcs-sweb-tbl/

    15. RDF (Resource Description Framework) • A framework to describe metadata • Separation of model and syntax • W3C Recommendation (2004)

    16. RDF Model • Element • Resource: • URI(Universal Resource Identifier) • Literal(string) • No need to be specified by Web • Property: • Attribute when describing resources • URI or Literal just as Resource • Statement: triad of resource, property, and resource

    17. RDF model • Statement • Creator of http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda is “Hideaki Takeda” • Structure • Resource (subject): http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda • Property (predicate): Creator • Value (object): “Hideaki Takeda” http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda Creator “Hideaki Takeda” Resource Property Value

    18. RDF model • Creator of http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda is http://www.nii.ac.jp/staffid/123456 which has name “Hideaki Takeda” and email “takeda@nii.ac.jp” . http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda Creator http://www.nii.ac.jp/staffid/123456 name email “Hideaki Takeda” “takeda@nii.ac.jp”

    19. RDF model • Creator of http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda has name “Hideaki Takeda” email “takeda@nii.ac.jp” . http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda Creator name email “Hideaki Takeda” “takeda@nii.ac.jp”

    20. RDF syntax • Creator of http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda is “Hideaki Takeda” http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda Creator “Hideaki Takeda” Resource Property Value <?xml version="1.0"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:dc="http://dublincore.org/2001/08/14/dces#"> <rdf:Description about="http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda"> <dc:Creator>Hideaki Takeda</dc:Creator> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> <rdf:RDF> <rdf:Description about="http://www-kasm.nii.ac.jp/~takeda"> <dc:Creator rdf:resource=“Hideaki Takeda” /> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

    21. RDFS (RDF Schema) • Stronger knowledge representation model • RDF: ER model,semantic net • RDF Schema: Frame model,object-oriented paradigm • Minimal definition • Property-centered approach • RDFS is defined as extension of RDF • RDFS gives definitions of RDF descriptions

    22. RDFS • Class Definition • rdfs:Resource • rdfs:Class • rdf:Property • rdfs:ConstraintProperty • rdfs:Literal • Property Definition • rdf:type • rdfs:subClassOf • rdfs:subPropertyOf • rdfs:comment • rdfs:label • rdfs:seeAlso • rdfs:isDefinedBy • ConstraintProperty Definition • rdfs:range • rdfs:domain RDFSStructure by RDF Resource Description Framework(RDF) Schema Specification 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/CR-rdf-schema-20000327/

    23. RDF Schema • Range • Only one • No cardinality • Domain • Multiple (or) • rdfs:Class • rdfs:SubclassOf • Detailed class • Multiple • Transivity • rdf:type • Indicate an instance of a class • rdf:property • Attribute • rdfs:subPropertyOf • Detailed property • Transivity

    24. Animal RDF Schema “The class of person” s rdfs:comment Person d d maritalStatus d ssn <rdf:RDFxml:lang="en" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"> <rdfs:Classrdf:ID="Person"> <rdfs:comment>The class of people.</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:subClassOfrdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/ 2000/03/example/ classes#Animal"/> </rdfs:Class> <rdf:Property ID="maritalStatus"> <rdfs:rangerdf:resource="#MaritalStatus"/> <rdfs:domainrdf:resource="#Person"/> </rdf:Property> <rdf:Property ID="ssn"> <rdfs:comment>Social Security Number</rdfs:comment> <rdfs:rangerdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/03/example/classes#Integer"/> <rdfs:domainrdf:resource="#Person"/> </rdf:Property> <rdf:Property ID="age"> <rdfs:rangerdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/03/example/classes#Integer"/> <rdfs:domainrdf:resource="#Person"/> </rdf:Property> <rdfs:Classrdf:ID="MaritalStatus"/> <MaritalStatusrdf:ID="Married"/> <MaritalStatusrdf:ID="Divorced"/> <MaritalStatusrdf:ID="Single"/> <MaritalStatusrdf:ID="Widowed"/> </rdf:RDF> r age MaritalStatus r rdfs:comment Integer t t Married Single “Social Security Number” t Windowed t = rdf:type d = rdfs:domain r = rdfs:range = class = class instance = property t Divorced Resource Description Framework(RDF) Schema Specification 1.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/CR-rdf-schema-20000327/

    25. OWL(Web Ontology Language) • More general knowledge representation • Based on Description Logics • Features • Class • Necessary condition / necessary and sufficient condition • Class expression: • Constraint by property • Like slot definition of a class • Type constraint (all/some), cardinality, typed cardinality • Logical operation of classes: union, intersection, negation • Property • Multiple ranges and domains • Specifying meta-property • Import of definitions

    26. Linked Data

    27. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    28. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    29. Architecture for the Semantic Web • The world of classes (Ontologies) • The world of instances (Linked Data) Tim Berners-Leehttp://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/09-lcs-sweb-tbl/

    30. Layers of Semantic Web • Ontology • Descriptions on classes • RDFS, OWL • Challenges for ontology building • Ontology building is difficult by nature • Consistency, comprehensiveness, logicality • Alignment of ontologies is more difficult Descriptions on classes Ontology インスタンスに関する記述 Linked Data Tim Berners-Leehttp://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/09-lcs-sweb-tbl/

    31. Layers of Semantic Web • Linked Data • Descriptions on instances (individuals) • RDF + (RDFS, OWL) • Pros for Linked Data • Easy to write (mainly fact description) • Easy to link (fact to fact link) • Cons for LinkedData • Difficult to describe complex structures • Still need for class description (-> ontology) Descriptions on classes Ontology Description on instances Linked Data Tim Berners-Leehttp://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/09-lcs-sweb-tbl/

    32. Linked Data • Linked Datais“Web of Data” • Data published as RDF • Can refer from outside • The four rules for Linked Data

    33. Linked Data • The four rules for Linked Data • Use URIs as names for things • Give a URI to every object in the world! • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. • Don’t use URN • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) • Provide machine-readable data for URI • Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. • Make data linked together just like Web Linked Data, TBL, http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html

    34. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    35. Linking Open Data (LOD) • The project to collect published Linked Data • Major Linked Data • (Translated from the original resources) • Dbpedia (Wikipedia) 270Million Triples • Geonames:Geo names and their latitudes and longitudes, 93 Million Triples • MusicBrainz:Music • WordNet:Dictionary • DBLP bibliography:Bibliography for technical papers. 28 Million Triples • US Census Data: 1 Billion Triples • (Crawling) • FOAF (Friend Of A Friend) • (Wrapper) • Flickr Wrapper

    36. LOD Cloud(Linking Open Data)

    37. http://dbpedia.org/page/Tokyo

    38. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo

    39. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    40. How to use Linked Data Linked Data Browser Linked Data Mashup Linked Data Search Engine Things Things Things Things Things

    41. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL

    42. Linked Data Browser • Browse linked data just as browsing web pages • Show RDF data • Prompt links to follow • System/Service • Mables • Display data by following links • Tabulator • Firefox plugin/online • Adding information in a single page • Sig.ma • Showing RDF resources which can be operated

    43. Tabulator

    44. Linked Data • What is Linked Data? • The State-of-the-Art of Linked Data • Linking Open Data (LOD) • How to use Linked Data • Linked Data Browser • Linked Data Search Engine • Linked Data Applications • How to use RDF • RDFa • SPARQL