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Chapter 12 Section 4. The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response. Objectives:. Explain the events leading to the Zwinglian Reformation Analyze the foundation of Calvinism and its spread throughout Europe. The Zwinglian Reformation.

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chapter 12 section 4

Chapter 12Section 4

The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response

  • Explain the events leading to the Zwinglian Reformation
  • Analyze the foundation of Calvinism and its spread throughout Europe
the zwinglian reformation
The Zwinglian Reformation
  • Ulrich Zwingli: priest in Zurich who introduced reforms.
    • abolished relics and removed decorations from the church.
  • As his movement spread, he sought an alliance between Martin Luther and German reformers.
    • Both Swiss and German reformers believed they need to unify against Catholic reformers, but were unable to agree of the meaning of the sacrament of communion.
    • Page 994- Primary Source

October 1531 war broke out between the Protestant and Catholic states in Switzerland.

  • Zwingli was killed, and leadership of Protestantism was passed to John Calvin.
calvin and calvinism
Calvin and Calvinism
  • Educated in France, but forced to flee after converting to Protestantism.
    • 1536- Published the Institute of the Christian Religion
  • Stood close to Luther on many doctrines, but believed in the all-powerful nature of God.
  • This belief led him to the idea of predestination, that God determined in advance who would be saved.
  • Calvin called this the “eternal decree” of an all-powerful God.

In 1536 Calvin began working to reform the city of Geneva.

  • Created a Consistory that was

1. set up to oversee Genevans’ moral life and doctrinal purity

2. Operate as a court

3. Punish those who misbehave

By the mid 16th century, Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the most dynamic form of Protestantism.

  • Board Summary: What did you learn today?
  • Evaluate King Henry VIIIs role in the Reformation in England
  • Analyze the impact of the Anabaptists
  • Compare and Contrast the transformative aspects of the Reformation to the role of women in Society
the reformation in england
The Reformation in England
  • Reformation began in politics, not religion.
  • King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon (who he had a daughter Mary with) and marry Anne Boleyn.
  • He was impatient with the popes unwillingness to annul, or declare his marriage invalid.
    • Archbishop of Canterbury declared marriage null and void, Anne was crowned queen and gave birth to a girl, who would become Elizabeth I

In 1534 Parliament moved to break with the Catholic Church.

    • Henry beheaded Thomas More, a Christian humanist, who opposed his action.
    • He also dissolved Catholic monasteries.

Henry died in 1547, succeeded by his nine year old son Edward VI.

  • Mary came to the throne in 1553.
  • Mary was a Catholic Queen, and wanted it restored.
    • Had over three hundred Protestants burned as heretics.
the anabaptists
The Anabaptists
  • Many reformers gave power to the state. Those who believed in separation of Church and state were Anabaptists.
  • Believed the true Christian church was adult believers, and practiced adult baptism.
  • They were regarded as dangerous radicals.
effects on the role of women
Effects on the Role of Women
  • The family was the center of life, and clergy could marry.
  • A women was to be obedient to her husband and bear children.
    • The reformation did not change the lives of women.
the catholic reformation
The Catholic Reformation
  • The Catholic Church had a revitalization in the 16th century.
    • Supported by chief pillars: the Jesuits, reforms of the papacy, and the Council of Trent
  • Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits, was formed by Ignatius Loyola.
    • Made vows of absolute obedience to the pope.
    • Used education to spread their mission.

Pope Paul III formed a reform commission in 1537 to discover the Church’s ills.

    • Also began the Council of Trent.
  • March 1545 a group of officials met in Trent and would meet on and off for the next 18 years.
    • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings and established clear doctrines.
  • Page 401 1,2,4-6
  • Study for Quiz