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Day 61: Drifting Toward Disunion. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute December 1, 2010 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. Renewing the Sectional Struggle. Objectives:

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day 61 drifting toward disunion

Day 61: Drifting Toward Disunion

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

December 1, 2010

A.P. U.S. History

Mr. Green

renewing the sectional struggle
Renewing the Sectional Struggle


Enumerate the sequence of major crises, beginning with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, that led up to secession, and explain the significance of each event.

Explain how and why the territory of bleeding Kansas became the scene of a dress rehearsal for the Civil War.

Trace the growing power of the Republican party in the 1850s and the increasing domination of the Democratic party by its militantly proslavery wing.

AP Focus

In their attempt to take the White House, the Republicans are defeated when John Frémont loses to Democrat James Buchanan. Nativists, concerned by German and Irish immigration, organize the American, or Know-Nothing, Party, which probably takes votes from the Republicans.

In March 1857, the Supreme Court rules that Dred Scott is not a citizen because of his race. The decision goes even further, stating that Congress has no authority to exclude slavery from any part of the nation or its territories. The Missouri Compromise is therefore ruled unconstitutional.

The financial crash of 1857 primarily affects the North and West. The South is essentially unaffected because of high cotton prices. Southerners cite this as an example of the superiority of their economic system over the North’s, which exploits the “wage-slaves.”

chapter focus
Chapter Focus

Chapter Themes

A series of major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of the antislavery Republican Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the union and form the Confederate States of America.


Election Charts 1852, 1856, 1860, 1864

Decades Chart 1850’s

financial crash of 1857
Financial Crash of 1857


inpouring California gold-inflated currency

Crimean War in Russia-commodities

Speculation in land/railroads

Tariff of 1857??? Not so fast my friend

reduced duties to 20%/placed on books just before the crash


5,000 business failed in the year

“Bread or Dead”

Northern grain growers hurt

King Cotton no impacted

Next Steps:

free land or homesteads

take away workers

More free-soilers

Buchanan vetoed it in 1860

an illinois rail splitter
An Illinois Rail-Splitter

1858 Illinois Senate Race

Steven Douglas-incumbent Democratic senator

Abraham Lincoln-Illinois legislature, 1 term U.S. U.S. House-Whig Party

Kansas-Nebraska Act lit a fire in Lincoln

Received 110 votes for VP nomination at the Philadelphia convention of 1856

the great debate lincoln versus douglas
The Great Debate: Lincoln Versus Douglas

Lincoln and Douglas agreed to 7 debates between August and October 1858

Freeport, Illinois-Famous debate

Suppose people of a territory should vote slavery down and since the U.S. Supreme Court decreed that they could not in the Dred Scott decision, who would prevail, the Court or the People?

Freeport Doctrine-now matter what the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be passed by the legislature.

cont d

As public opinion goes against an issue, the law is nearly impossible to execute

Douglas won as Senators were chosen by the state legislature

Due to inequitable apportionment, Lincoln actually carried a larger population

Lincoln became famous from the debates

Douglas hurt his chances to become President with support of the Lecompton Constitution and defiance of the Supreme Court

john brown murderer or martyr
John Brown: Murderer or Martyr?

John Brown studied tactics of Toussaint L’Ouvertureand Nat Turner

Raid on Harpers Ferry

Federal Arsenal

Killed 7 innocent people, I Free Black

Did not obtain the objective of slaves rising in revolt, instead

Brown is captured by Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee and hanged.

South angry of northern support for Brown

A traitor and apostle of treason

Many ignorant of Brown’s bloody past

disruption of the democrats
Disruption of the Democrats

Democrats met in Charleston, SC

Southern Democrats upset with Douglas’ support of the Lecompton Constitution and the Freeport Doctrine

Southern Democrats walked out of the convention

Tried again… Baltimore and nominated Douglas on the platform of popular sovereignty and against obstruction to the Fugitive Slave Law

cont d1

Southern Democrats in Baltimore organized their own convention

Nominated John C. Breckenridge from KY

extend slavery into territories

annex slave populated Cuba

Constitutional Union Party-former Whigs and Know-Nothings

Nominated John Bell from TN

“The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of Laws”

a rail splitter splits the union
A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union

Republicans nominate Lincoln over Seward

Lincoln made fewer enemies than Seward

non-extension of slavery into the territories

protective tariff

no abridgment of rights for immigrants

pacific railroad

internal improvement in the West

free homesteads

cont d2

Republicans did not control the House or Senate

South had a 5-4 majority on the Supreme Court

Federal government could not touch slavery where it existed except for………..

a constitutional amendment which could be defeated ¼ of the states

Southern states seceded during the lame duck session

Buchanan did nothing-Army small and fighting Indians in the West and public opinion

collapse of compromise
Collapse of Compromise

Crittenden amendments

Slavery prohibited north of 36 degrees 30 min

South of the line, slavery receive federal protection in all territories now and new

Popular sovereignty for statehood

Slavery would be protected in the southern territories

Lincoln rejected this

  • Finish Chapter 19
  • Work on Charts.