Day 61: Drifting Toward Disunion. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute December 1, 2010 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green. Renewing the Sectional Struggle. Objectives:
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Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
December 1, 2010
A.P. U.S. History
Enumerate the sequence of major crises, beginning with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, that led up to secession, and explain the significance of each event.
Explain how and why the territory of bleeding Kansas became the scene of a dress rehearsal for the Civil War.
Trace the growing power of the Republican party in the 1850s and the increasing domination of the Democratic party by its militantly proslavery wing.
In their attempt to take the White House, the Republicans are defeated when John Frémont loses to Democrat James Buchanan. Nativists, concerned by German and Irish immigration, organize the American, or Know-Nothing, Party, which probably takes votes from the Republicans.
In March 1857, the Supreme Court rules that Dred Scott is not a citizen because of his race. The decision goes even further, stating that Congress has no authority to exclude slavery from any part of the nation or its territories. The Missouri Compromise is therefore ruled unconstitutional.
The financial crash of 1857 primarily affects the North and West. The South is essentially unaffected because of high cotton prices. Southerners cite this as an example of the superiority of their economic system over the North’s, which exploits the “wage-slaves.”
A series of major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of the antislavery Republican Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the union and form the Confederate States of America.
Election Charts 1852, 1856, 1860, 1864
Decades Chart 1850’s
inpouring California gold-inflated currency
Crimean War in Russia-commodities
Speculation in land/railroads
Tariff of 1857??? Not so fast my friend
reduced duties to 20%/placed on books just before the crash
5,000 business failed in the year
“Bread or Dead”
Northern grain growers hurt
King Cotton no impacted
free land or homesteads
take away workers
Buchanan vetoed it in 1860
1858 Illinois Senate Race
Steven Douglas-incumbent Democratic senator
Abraham Lincoln-Illinois legislature, 1 term U.S. U.S. House-Whig Party
Kansas-Nebraska Act lit a fire in Lincoln
Received 110 votes for VP nomination at the Philadelphia convention of 1856
Lincoln and Douglas agreed to 7 debates between August and October 1858
Freeport, Illinois-Famous debate
Suppose people of a territory should vote slavery down and since the U.S. Supreme Court decreed that they could not in the Dred Scott decision, who would prevail, the Court or the People?
Freeport Doctrine-now matter what the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be passed by the legislature.
As public opinion goes against an issue, the law is nearly impossible to execute
Douglas won as Senators were chosen by the state legislature
Due to inequitable apportionment, Lincoln actually carried a larger population
Lincoln became famous from the debates
Douglas hurt his chances to become President with support of the Lecompton Constitution and defiance of the Supreme Court
John Brown studied tactics of Toussaint L’Ouvertureand Nat Turner
Raid on Harpers Ferry
Killed 7 innocent people, I Free Black
Did not obtain the objective of slaves rising in revolt, instead
Brown is captured by Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee and hanged.
South angry of northern support for Brown
A traitor and apostle of treason
Many ignorant of Brown’s bloody past
Democrats met in Charleston, SC
Southern Democrats upset with Douglas’ support of the Lecompton Constitution and the Freeport Doctrine
Southern Democrats walked out of the convention
Tried again…..in Baltimore and nominated Douglas on the platform of popular sovereignty and against obstruction to the Fugitive Slave Law
Southern Democrats in Baltimore organized their own convention
Nominated John C. Breckenridge from KY
extend slavery into territories
annex slave populated Cuba
Constitutional Union Party-former Whigs and Know-Nothings
Nominated John Bell from TN
“The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of Laws”
Republicans nominate Lincoln over Seward
Lincoln made fewer enemies than Seward
non-extension of slavery into the territories
no abridgment of rights for immigrants
internal improvement in the West
Republicans did not control the House or Senate
South had a 5-4 majority on the Supreme Court
Federal government could not touch slavery where it existed except for………..
a constitutional amendment which could be defeated ¼ of the states
Southern states seceded during the lame duck session
Buchanan did nothing-Army small and fighting Indians in the West and public opinion
Slavery prohibited north of 36 degrees 30 min
South of the line, slavery receive federal protection in all territories now and new
Popular sovereignty for statehood
Slavery would be protected in the southern territories
Lincoln rejected this