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Drifting Toward Disunion 1854-1861

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AP US History Unit 5. Drifting Toward Disunion 1854-1861. Sectionalism Growing. Antislavery movement gains ground in the north in the 1850’s with the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel on the cruelties of slavery, Uncle Tom’s Cabin .

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Presentation Transcript
sectionalism growing
Sectionalism Growing
  • Antislavery movement gains ground in the north in the 1850’s with the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel on the cruelties of slavery, Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
  • Animosity for the north continued to grow in the hearts of the southerners.
  • What influenced Stowe’s writing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852?
slide3
1854
  • With Stephen Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Act, the race to populate the newly created Kansas and Nebraska territories had begun.
  • Thousands of abolitionist northerners and pro-slavery southerners flocked the area to stake their claim and cast their vote.
  • What is popular sovereignty?
1856 bleeding kansas
1856: “Bleeding Kansas”
  • The time has come to organize the territorial legislature for the Kansas territory.
  • “Border Ruffians” from Missouri (pro-slavery) poured in to set up the state government.
  • Abolitionists also sent representatives to Kansas to set up a state government as well.
  • Where was the first major act of violence in the Kansas territory between anti-slavery north and pro-slavery south?
bleeding kansas continued
“Bleeding Kansas” continued..
  • John Brown; passionate abolitionist
  • Leads a group of men to Pottawatomie Creek in May of 1856
  • Brutally kills 5 men in response to the attack in Lawrence.
  • Was John Brown justified in his retalliation attacks? Why or why not?
election of 1856
Election of 1856
  • Democrats: James Buchanan
    • Not influenced by Kansas violence
    • Had few enemies
    • Popular Sovereignty
  • Republicans: Capt. John C. Fremont
    • Against the expansion of slavery
    • Roman Catholic
  • American Party aka. Know-Nothing: Millard Fillmore
    • Anti-foreign, anti-catholic
    • Supporter of “natives”
  • What were the results of this election? Why did the northerners cast their votes for the Democrats rather than the anti-slavery Republicans?
splitting of the democrats
Splitting of the Democrats
  • 1857: Kansas is now ready to become a state
  • Lecompton Constitution
    • Even if Kansans voted down slavery with popular sovereignty, those who currently have slaves there would be protected and could keep them.
    • Loophole of popular sovereignty
    • Supported by President Buchanan
  • How did Stephen Douglas feel about the Lecompton Constitution? Why?
splitting of the democrats continued
Splitting of the Democrats continued…
  • Example of division: 1856
  • Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivers speech “The Crime Against Kansas”
    • Insults southern, pro-slavery states and their representatives; SC in particular (Preston Brooks)
  • May 22, 1856: Preston Brooks enters Sumner’s office and beats him ferociously with his caneuntil it breaks. Sumner in critical condition.
  • What did this attack demonstrate to the country?
dred scott decision
Dred Scott Decision
  • March 6, 1857 (Scott v. Sanford)
  • Scott, a black slave lived with master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin territory.
  • With the help of abolitionists, sues for his freedom.
  • Chief Justice Roger B Taney (from Md., owned slaves) hands down decision
  • What were four elements of Justice Taney’s decision in this case?
lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • 1858: Senate seat of Illinois
  • Republican: Abraham Lincoln
  • Democrat: Stephen Douglas
  • Lincoln challenges Douglas to a series of 7 debates throughout Illinois from August-October.
  • Most famous debate in Freeport, Ill.
  • What famous question did Lincoln ask Douglas in this debate?
freeport doctrine
Freeport Doctrine
  • Douglas’ response further tore apart the Democratic party.
  • His answer became known as the “Freeport Doctrine”
  • What was the logic behind Douglas’ Freeport Doctrine?
results of senate race 1858
Results of Senate Race 1858
  • Stephen Douglas wins the election for the seat in Senate
  • Abraham Lincoln had the moral victory though.
  • How was this a moral victory for Lincoln based on what you know about future events?
harpers ferry 1859
Harpers Ferry: 1859
  • John Brown devises a scheme to invade a federal arsenal in Virginia and arm hundreds of slaves with weapons and lead a revolt and establish a free state for African-Americans.
  • In the process he and his group kill 7 innocent people.
  • The slaves did not rally as Brown planned and they were captured by the Marine Corp under the leadership of Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee.
  • What was John Brown’s fate for his actions?
  • How did the north view his hanging? The South?
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