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Processing with Programs 1. ITGS – Software Basic. Food for Thought: Recipe for food P recise steps How many steps. Processing with Programs 2. ITGS – Software Basic. Food for Thought: One step to explain many actions. Computers – fast, smart machines. ITGS – Software Basic.

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itgs software basic

Processing with Programs 1

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Food for Thought:
  • Recipe for food
  • Precise steps
  • How many steps
itgs software basic1

Processing with Programs 2

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Food for Thought:
  • One step to explain many actions
itgs software basic2

Computers – fast, smart machines

ITGS – Software Basic

Computers – smart or intelligent machines

but they perform only basic arithmetic operations

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ITGS – Software Basic

Algorithm is set of step-by-step procedures for accomplishing a task.

Programmers turn algorithms into programs by adding details, testing procedures and debugging – correcting errors.

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The Language of Computers 1

ITGS – Software Basic

Every computer processes instructions in a native machine language.

Machine language uses numeric codes to represent the most basic operations-adding, comparing, moving numbers and repeating instructions.

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The Language of Computers 2

ITGS – Software Basic

Early programs were written in machine language.

Nowadays, programming languages are like human languages.

High-level languages: C++, Java, Visual Basic.Net

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A translator program 1

ITGS – Software Basic

Computer understands only machine language. High-level languages are easy for use for human.

High-level languages must be translated to the zeros and ones of machine language.

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A translator program 2

ITGS – Software Basic

A translator program converts the English-like instructions to the zeros and ones of machine language.

Translation process must be finished before using program.

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A translator program 3

ITGS – Software Basic

  • A translator programs are divided:
  • compiler – translates file (formed .exe executive file). Complete translation before the first run (execution).
  • interpreter each time when its run translate instruction. (instruction by instruction)

ITGS – Software Basic

Translation processes 4




(Source file)



(Exe file)


ITGS – Software Basic

Translation processes 5








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ITGS – Software Basic

  • Software package includes printed documentation
  • Tutorial manuals
  • Reference manuals (how to use software)
  • Help (printed, on CD, DVD, computer or online)
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ITGS – Software Basic

  • New version
  • 6.0
  • 6.1
  • 7.0
  • Update:
  • New versions
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Compatibility 1

ITGS – Software Basic

No complete, universal software standards exist in computer world.

Problem: program written for one type of computer system may not work on another.

Windows 9x

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Compatibility 2

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Software - Microsoft:
  • DOS
  • Windows
  • Office (documents)
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ITGS – Software Basic

  • Most programs works amazingly well but not perfectly.
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Vertical Market and Custom Software

ITGS – Software Basic

Applications designed specifically for a particular business or industry are called vertical-market or custom applications. (restaurant-management software, medical-billing software, school evidence software)

Cost far more then mass-market applications.

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Operating system 1

ITGS – Software Basic

  • System software:
  • Operating system (OS)
  • Utility programs
  • Links
  • Compilers
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Operating system 2

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Operating system (OS):
  • Part of system software
  • Work behind the scenes
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Operating system 3

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Operating system communicating with:
  • screens
  • printers
  • disk drives
  • other peripheral devices
  • OS communicate with peripherals and with user
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OS Concurrent Processing of Jobs

ITGS – Software Basic

Operating system - concurrent processing of jobs:

Rapidly switching back and forth between jobs (waiting for input, or printer, …)

Time sharing:

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OS Communicate

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Operating system communicating with:
  • screens
  • printers
  • disk drives
  • other peripheral devices
  • OS communicate with peripherals
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Memory Management

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Several jobs concurrently:
  • OS must keep track
  • Divide memory
  • Swap information between the computer’s memory and external storage devices (access time slower)
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Data Management

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Several jobs concurrently:
  • OS must keep track
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Programs and Data Drivers

ITGS – Software Basic

Utility programs serve as tools for doing system and repairs that aren’t automatically handled by the operating system.

Copy files, repair damaged data files, translate files to different programs, compress files, …

Operating systems invoke many utility programs

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Desktop Operating Systems 1

ITGS – Software Basic

PC operating systems, created for the Apple II, the original IMB PC and other machines, looked nothing like today’s Macintosh and Windows operating systems.

It was OS a character-based interface.

A command line systems.

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Desktop Operating Systems 2

ITGS – Software Basic

Graphic display; is not limited to displaying rows and columns of characters, it can individually control every dot on the screen.

The MAC OS a graphical user interface-abbreviated GUI (gooey)

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Desktop Operating Systems 3

ITGS – Software Basic

The first to market, the Macintosh was eclipsed in the GUI operating system. At the beginning MS Windows was a program (shell) that put graphical face on MS DOS. With Windows 95 MS transforming Windows from an operating system shell into full operating system.

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Desktop Operating Systems 4

ITGS – Software Basic

Hierarchical menus in Windows Mac OS organization (frequently needed commands into compact).

Pop-up menus

Context-sensitive menus

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Multiple-User Operating systems: Unix and Linux

ITGS – Software Basic

Unix operating system developed at Bell Labs over a decade before the first PCs, enables a timesharing computer to communicate with several other computers or terminals at one time.

UNIX is command line, character-based operating system.

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Using a Linux GUI

ITGS – Software Basic

Goal: GNOME, a shell that puts a graphical desktop environment between you and the Linux command-line environment.

Tools: Linux, GNOME, OpenOffice

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Hardware and Software Platforms 1

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Microsoft Windows XP (2001)
  • Home edition; home users
  • Windows XP Professional (business users)
  • Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (Tablet PC-style notebooks)
  • Windows XP Media Center Edition (multimedia-enabled PCs)
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Hardware and Software Platforms 2

ITGS – Software Basic

Microsoft Windows XP is enhanced version of Windows 2000 Professional. Both Windows XP and Windows 2000 are technically successors to Windows NT, not Windows 9x/DOS.

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Hardware and Software Platforms 3

ITGS – Software Basic

Microsoft Server 2003 server-based counterpart to Windows XP successor to the Windows 2000 Server product family, runs on all sizes of Web servers.

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Hardware and Software Platforms 4

ITGS – Software Basic

Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition. (Windows Me)/Windows9x. The end of the DOS–based Windows versions. (Windows 3.1x; Windows 95; Windows 98;

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Hardware and Software Platforms 5

ITGS – Software Basic

Microsoft Windows CE.NET is designed mostly for embedded connecter devices, and a special versions of the OS, handheld computers like the Pocket PC.

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Hardware and Software Platforms 6

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Palm OS
  • Mac OS X(20)
  • Mac OS 9
  • Linux, Sun Solaris and other UNIX variants.
  • Linux is free, but doesn’t offer applications programs as Windows does.
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Hardware and Software Platforms 7

ITGS – Software Basic

Operating systems need application software so they can do useful work.

Application software needs to be built to any kind of platform.

Platform is combination of hardware and operating system software.

Cross-platform applications (MS Office, Photoshop, are available in similar versions for multiple platforms.

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Hardware and Software Platforms 8

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Three general platforms:
  • Windows
  • Mac OS (graphic design, publishing, music, video, multimedia)
  • UNIX/Linux (servers and high-end workstations)
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Hardware and Software Platforms 9

ITGS – Software Basic

  • Three OS:
  • Windows (Intel or compatible CPU)
  • Mac OS (Power PC processors)
  • UNIX/Linux (can run on many hardware platforms, including Intel and Power PC processors) but different versions of Linux aren’t necessarily compatible.
itgs software basic38

Hardware and Software Platforms 10

ITGS – Software Basic

Emulation, blurs the line between platforms.

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Hardware and Software Platforms 11

ITGS – Software Basic

Network vs. desktop

More time on the Web

Microsoft’s .NET strategy is a response to the popularity of Java, a platform-neutral computer language developed. Program written in Java can run on different OS.

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ITGS – Software Basic

Changing letters

Name of hacker programs used for getting in program

How to keep security of password? (hardware, software)