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Moss & Fern

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  1. Moss & Fern Sphagnum palustre (clones, no spore stage) Hapu’u Tree Fern

  2. 1. Non-vascular plants • Division Bryophyta (mosses) • Division Hepatophyta (liverworts) • Division Anthocerophyta (hornworts) • 2. Vascular plants • A. No seeds : • Division Lycophyta (club mosses) • Division Pterophyta (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns) • B. Production of seeds : • 1) No flowers : Gymnosperms • Division Coniferophyta (conifers) • Division Cycadophyta (cycads) • Division Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) • Division Gnetophyta (gnetae) • 2) Flowers : Angiosperms • Division Anthophyta (flowering plants)

  3. Typical Plant Life Cycle

  4. Homosporous vs. Heterosporous Plants Homosporous eggs Single type of spore Bisexual gametophyte   Sporophyte sperm Heterosporous eggs Female gametophyte megaspore  Sporophyte Male gametophyte microspore  sperm

  5. Bryophytes • phylum Hepatophyta - liverworts • phylum Anthocerophyta - hornworts • phylum Bryophyta - mosses

  6. Phylum Bryophyta • Gametophyte dominant • Lack vascular tissues • Homosporous • Possess waterproof cuticle • Dispersal by windblown spores • Swimming sperm

  7. Moss Lifecycle

  8. Moss Lifecycle

  9. Moss Lifecycle

  10. Alternation of Generations: Mosses Fuzzy, green, vegetative covering frequently found on rocks in cool, moist habitats = haploid, GAMETOPHYTE stage of moss life cycle

  11. Alternation of Generations: Mosses leafy, haploid gametophyte with emerging diploid sporophyte

  12. Moss Archegonia

  13. Sporophytes

  14. Moss Sporangium

  15. Moss spores

  16. Moss Protonema

  17. Division Pterophyta: Ferns • Sporophyte dominant • Possess vascular tissues • Leaves are megaphylls • Homosporous • Possess waterproof cuticle • Dispersal by windblown spores • Swimming sperm

  18. Fern Life Cycle

  19. Alternation of Generations: Ferns Ferns Sporophyte = dominant (most conspicuous) individual Gametophyte = small, fragile structure most people (even botanists!) never notice

  20. Fern Sporophyte

  21. Alternation of Generations: Ferns Frond = diploid sporophyte Sorus = collection of sporangia where meiosis occurs

  22. Sori on a Fern Sporophyll

  23. Sorus Close Up

  24. Fern Sporangium

  25. Fern Gametophytes

  26. Juvenile Fern Sporophylls

  27. Alternation of Generations: Ferns young diploid sporophyte beginning to grow from the haploid gametophyte

  28. Alternation of Generations: Ferns young sporophyte produces coiled “fiddleheads” that unfurl into mature fronds