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Schedule for Tonight

Schedule for Tonight

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Schedule for Tonight

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  1. Schedule for Tonight • Specific Charter Rights • Fundamental Freedoms (s. 2(b) -- Expression • Life, Liberty and Security of the Person (s. 7) (Wynberg) • Legal Rights -- arrest, detention (s. 9) (L.B.)

  2. Fundamental Freedoms -- s. 2 Freedom of Religion Freedom of Expression

  3. Charter -- Section 2(b) “Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: … (b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression,including freedom of the press and other media of communication;…” Introduction • Theories and Concepts - long history of belief in the value of FOE

  4. Charter -- Section 2(b) 1. Theories and Concepts - compare with U.S. 1st amendment: “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;…”

  5. Charter -- Section 2(b) 1. Theories and Concepts - 3 Primary Rationales: 1. Search for Truth/Marketplace of Ideas 2. Political process/Democratic Government 3. Self Realization/Actualization

  6. Charter -- Section 2(b) 3. Scope of Freedom of Expression--what does it include/exclude? • Dolphin Delivery • Keegstra • Ford • Broad interpretation, any expression short of actual violence, includes commercial expression, includes threats of violence • Irwin Toy • 2 Step Analysis • 1. Is activity a type of conduct protected? Look at form and content --Does it convey meaning? • 2. Does government action restrict expression, either in purpose or effect?

  7. Charter -- Section 2(b) Examples of expression? - “FIRE” in crowded theatre - skywriting - etc.

  8. Charter -- Section 7 “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.” Wynberg v. The Queen [2006, Ont. C.A.] - Presentation: Victoria Pezzo, Heather McMartin

  9. Charter -- Section 7 “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.” Life: Liberty: - Economic Liberty? - Blencoe Security of the Person: - Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and Law v. Canada (AG) -- corporal punishment provisions in Criminal Code - R. v. Morgentaler -- risk to women’s health due to abortion provisions of Criminal Code

  10. Charter -- Section 7 “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.” “Fundamental Justice” - R. v. Malmo-Levine [2003] - For rule or principle to constitute principle of fundamental justice: 1. Rule must be a legal principle 2. Significant societal consensus that it is fundamental to the way in which the legal system ought fairly to operate. 3. Rule must be capable of being identified with sufficient precision to yield a manageable standard.

  11. Charter -- Section 7 “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.” “Fundamental Justice” - Chaoulli v. Quebec [2005] - Arbitrary law - “lacks a real connection on the facts to the purpose the law is said to serve”

  12. Charter -- Section 9 “Everyone has the right not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned.” The Queen v. L.B. [2007, Ont. C.A.] - Presentation: Marlon Rhodan, Andrew Harper

  13. Charter -- Section 9 “Everyone has the right not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned.” The Queen v. L.B. 3 Situations for Detention: 1. Physical constraint; 2. Control over movement of person with significant legal consequences; 3. Submission or acquiesence without belief in a reasonable alternative -- “psychological detention”

  14. Charter -- Section 9 “Everyone has the right not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned.” Arbitrary • unfettered discretion • Capricious • May include unlawful arrest (ie, “unlawful” may not be “arbitrary”) • Detention for questioning on ‘reasonable grounds to detain’ Remedy • See s. 24(2) -- exclusion of evidence