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The First Humans. Prehistory-3500 BC. Chapter Objectives. Explain the methods scientists use to uncover early human existence Describe the nature of human life during the Old Stone Age Identify the important developments of the New Stone Age

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The first humans

The First Humans

Prehistory-3500 BC

Chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

  • Explain the methods scientists use to uncover early human existence

  • Describe the nature of human life during the Old Stone Age

  • Identify the important developments of the New Stone Age

  • Define civilization and identify the characteristics of a civilization

Early humans
Early Humans

Before History

Early Stages of Development

The Hunters-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age

Before history
Before History

  • Prehistory- period for which we have no written records

  • Prehistoric people had no cities, countries, or centralized governments

  • The story of early humans relies primarily on archaeological and biological information

  • Archaeologists and anthropologists use this information to create theories of our early past

Archaeology and anthropology
Archaeology and Anthropology

  • Archaeology- study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind

    • Artifacts- tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, and household items

  • Anthropology- study of human life and culture

    • Use artifacts and human fossils

Scientific methods used to create theories
Scientific Methods Used to Create Theories

  • Radiocarbon Dating

    • Scientists calculate the age of an object by measuring the amount of C-14 left in it

    • Accurate for objects 50,000 yrs old or less

  • Thermoluminescence

    • Measures the light given off by electrons trapped in soil surrounding an object

    • Accurate for objects up to 200,000 yrs old

  • Biological Methods

    • DNA and blood molecule analysis

Think pair share

  • What artifacts from contemporary culture would best show contemporary ways of life, beliefs, and values to archaeologists and anthropologists tens of thousands of years from now? Explain what these artifacts would teach future peoples about us.

Early stages of developnment
Early Stages of Developnment

Spread of homo sapiens sapiens
Spread of Homo Sapiens Sapiens

  • Homo Sapiens Sapiens replaced Neanderthals by 30,000 BC

  • Spread of these first modern humans was slow

    • Groups of people, probably in search of food, moved at a rate of 2-3 miles per generation

    • Although slow, this was enough to populate the entire world of tens of thousands of years

      - All humans today belong to this subgroup of human beings

Think pair share1

  • Look at the Geography Skills questions on page 22.

  • Using the map, answer the 2 questions

  • Answers:

    1. North America to South America (2,000yrs)

    2. Northeast North America

The hunter gatherers of the old stone age
The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age

  • Paleolithic Age

    • Early period of human history (approximately 2,500,000 to 10,000 BC)

    • Humans used simple stone tools

    • “Old Stone Age”

Paleolithic way of life
Paleolithic Way of Life

Roles of Men and Women

Use of Fire


Paleolithic Age




Reading activity
Reading Activity

  • As we read from page 22-25, write down all important aspects of Paleolithic life, in relation to the graphic organizer on the previous slide


    1. What were the different roles of Paleolithic men and women, in regards to finding food?

    - Women gathered berries, nuts, and fruits

    Men hunted

    2. Why was finding food the principal work of Paleolithic peoples?

    - Needed food for survival

The neolithic revolution and the rise of civilization
The Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization

The Neolithic Revolution

The Emergence of Civilization

The neolithic revolution
The Neolithic Revolution

  • Neolithic Age

    • Period of human history from 8000 to 4000 BC

    • “New Stone Age”

    • Shift from hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture- keeping of animals and growing of food

    • End of nomadic lifestyles

The growing of crops
The Growing of Crops

  • By 8000 BC, systematic agriculture developed in Southwest Asia

  • By 4000 BC, systematic agriculture was well established in central Europe and the coastal regions of the Mediterranean

Neolithic farming villages
Neolithic Farming Villages

  • The growing of crops gave rise to more permanent settlements

  • These farming villages were located all over, but the most prominent ones were located in Southwest Asia

  • Due to increased food production, food surpluses made it possible for people to do things other than farming

  • Artisans were skilled workers that made products such as weapons or jewelry that was traded with neighboring villages

  • Shrines and statues point to growing role of religion

Consequences of the neolithic revolution
Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution

  • Building of houses and other structures

  • Development of trade

  • Specialized labor

  • Refined stone tools

  • Men become more involved in farming and herding

  • Women responsible for caring for children and other activities requiring labor in one place

  • Men take a dominant role

End of the neolithic age
End of the Neolithic Age

  • Between 4000 and 3000 BC new developments affected Neolithic towns

  • Copper was first metal to be used for making tools

    • Western Asians discovered combination of copper and tin formed bronze-harder and more durable than copper

      • Bronze Age- 3000 – 1200 BC

  • As farming was mastered, societies began building armies and walled cities, by beginning of Bronze age, large numbers of people were concentrated in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China

Think pair share2

  • How did the Neolithic Age differ from the Paleolithic age?

The emergence of civilization
The Emergence of Civilization

  • Culture- the way of life a group of people follow

  • Civilization- a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements

  • Historians have identified basic characteristics of civilizations

What makes a civilization
What Makes a Civilization

Central Governments


What Makes a Civilization?

Organized Religion

Art and Architecture

System of Writing

Social Classes

Reading activity1
Reading Activity

  • As we read page 30-31 write down all important information as it pertains to the six characteristics of civilizations discussed.

  • Be prepared to share findings

Exit ticket
Exit Ticket

  • Respond to 2 out of the 4 following prompts. Be sure responses are written in full, correct sentences. Please # the responses by the number of the prompt being answered.

    1. Explain the methods scientists use to uncover early human existence

    2. Describe the nature of human life during the Old Stone Age

    3. Identify the important developments of the New Stone Age

    4. Define civilization and identify the characteristics of a civilization