Humans. Classifying Humans. Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Chordata Class : Mammalia Order :Primates Family : Hominidae Genus :Homo Species :sapiens. Eumetazoa (Triploblastic) Bilateria Deuterostomes Coelomates Radial, indeterminate cleavage Segmented
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Different human features evolved at different times – such as brain size, upright posture, etc.
Erect posture and bipedalism lead the way
Humans and chimpanzees (but also other apes) diverged from the same ancestor 6 to 8 million years ago
There are about 20 known extinct human-like species – collectively called homonins
Oldest homonin fossil is that of the Sahelanthropus tchadensisMosaic Evolution
(4.4 million year ago), could it be the ancestor of Australopithecus?
Reduced canines, small brain, both bipedal and arborealArdipithecus ramidus
In 1924 British anthropologist discovered a skull of an early human in South Africa
Named him Australopithecus africanus (southern ape of Africa)The AustralopithsLived about 4 – 2 million years ago
In 1974, In the afar region of Ethiopia, Donald Johanson discovered the remains of another Australopithecus species – a small female
They named her “Lucy” – scientific name Australopithecus afarensis (Southern Ape)
A.afarensis was first to walk fully upright
Lucy is 3.2 million years old and her species roamed Africa for about 1 million yearsAustralopithecus afarensis
Homo erectus – “Upright Man” discovered the remains of another Australopithecus species – a small female
Lived about 1.8 million years ago to about 250,000 years ago
First to be a hunter-gatherer, instead of just a gatherer
Learned to eat meat – so a better traveller!
Homo erectus was first to migrate out of Africa – to Asia and Europe fossils of Java man and Beijing Man support this
Taller than H.habilis, larger brains
Made more complex tools, lived in huts/shelter they made, built fires, clothed themselves – survived different climates
Lived and hunted in groups (primitive society)Homo erectus (possibly the Asian branch of another Homo – Homo ergaster)
Descended from discovered the remains of another Australopithecus species – a small femaleH. erectus
Lived in Europe and the Middle East 135,000 years ago to about 35,000 years ago
Skilled toolmakers, buried their dead, performed rituals (developing culture)
Had anatomical equipment for speechHomo sapiens Neanderthalensis
Oldest H.sapiens fossil dates back to 200,000 -100,000 years discovered the remains of another Australopithecus species – a small female
Fossils have been found in Africa as well as Israel, not far from fossils of H.sapiens Neanderthalensis
H.sapiens sapiens and H.sapiens Neanderthalensis coexisted in the region for 40,000 years – but did not interbreed (disputed)
Both evolutionary dead endsHomo sapiens sapiens