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The Effect of Dimpling on the Drag Force of an Automobile in Motion. Josh Denzler – Lake Shore High School Mike Oliver – Lake Shore High School. Terminology. Drag Force – A force that opposes a projectile’s motion Wake – Area of turbulent air behind a projectile

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the effect of dimpling on the drag force of an automobile in motion

The Effect of Dimpling on the Drag Force of an Automobile in Motion

Josh Denzler – Lake Shore High School

Mike Oliver – Lake Shore High School

terminology
Terminology

Drag Force – A force that opposes a projectile’s motion

Wake – Area of turbulent air behind a projectile

Dimple – A slight depression

background
Background
  • Gas Prices:
    • Have risen in recent years
    • New Standards:
      • “that will increase fuel economy to the equivalent of 54.5 mpg for cars and light-duty trucks by Model Year 2025”
background1
Background
  • Car companies:
    • Making more fuel efficient cars
    • Hybrid technology
    • Lightweight materials
    • Aerodynamics
      • More aerodynamic = less energy to move car
      • Less energy to move car = less fuel consumed
scientific concepts
Scientific Concepts
  • Dimpling:
    • Improves aerodynamics of a golf ball
    • Can it improve the aerodynamics of a car?
previous research
Previous Research
  • Mythbusters:
    • Ran an identical course with dimpled and smooth cars
    • Saw a fuel efficiency increase of three mpg
  • Zipp:
    • Bicycle manufacturer
    • Dimples surface of their disk wheels
    • Better gripping ability on the roads
    • Takes less effort to spin the tire
previous research1
Previous Research
  • Fastskinz:
    • Dimpled vinyl skin to go over cars
    • Tested by Popular Mechanics:
      • Did not improve fuel efficiency
problem
Problem

Do different dimple sizes on a car reduce the drag force acting on that car?

hypothesis
Hypothesis

The smooth car, six millimeter dimple, eight millimeter dimple, and ten millimeter dimple will not all have equal drag forces

The ten millimeter diameter dimple will result in the largest reduction of drag.

materials
Materials

Wind Tunnel

Vernier Lab Quest

Asus Tablet

Lab Car Model

procedure
Procedure

We are going to insert a video of our procedures here. We will narrate the video appropriately while it is playing.

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Purpose:
    • To find out if dimples had an effect on the drag force acting on a car
    • To find which dimple size has the greatest effect on that drag force
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • The Experiment:
    • Used a force sensor
    • Compared drag force acting on different car types
    • Used ANOVA and Two-Sample t Tests
    • Found 8 mm dimple car to have lowest drag force of all car types
conclusion2
Conclusion
  • Initial Hypothesis:
    • The smooth car, six millimeter dimple, eight millimeter dimple, and ten millimeter dimple will not all have equal drag forces
    • The ten millimeter diameter dimple will result in the largest reduction of drag
conclusion3
Conclusion
  • Hypothesis Rejected:
    • All cars did not have same drag force
    • BUT 8 mm car had the lowest drag force
  • Why?
    • A car is not a golf ball
    • Air is not flowing around the car uniformly
    • Design Flaws
design flaws
Design Flaws
  • Bad Dimpling:
    • Dimples not uniform distance apart
    • Dimples went too far into clay
    • Machine would be more accurate
  • Data Not Randomized:
    • Lurking variables would affect data unevenly
    • Monetary resources
    • Machine could also correct this
further research
Further Research
  • Different Patterns:
    • Different dimples (hexagon, square, etc)
    • Troughs/Ridges
  • Different Car Style:
    • Less sports car like
    • More ball-shaped
  • Other forms of transportation:
    • Planes
    • Trains
    • Ships
real life application
Real Life Application
  • Automotive Design:
    • More fuel efficient cars
    • Decrease oil dependency
    • Help conform to Obama’s standards
  • Projectile Design:
    • Bullets, missiles, balls, etc.
    • Reduces energy needed to fly
    • Can fly further/longer