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March 10, 2014. NURS 330 Human Reproductive Health. Breast Cancer Lecture Breast Self Exam Testicular Self Exam (TSE).

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march 10 2014

March 10, 2014

NURS 330

Human Reproductive Health


Breast Cancer Lecture


Breast Self Exam

testicular self exam tse
Testicular Self Exam (TSE)
the american cancer society s estimates breast cancer
The American Cancer Society’s Estimates – Breast Cancer
  • The American Cancer Society's most recent estimates for breast cancer in the United States are for 2013:
  • About 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in women.
  • About 64,640 new cases of carcinoma in situ (CIS) will be diagnosed (CIS is non-invasive and is the earliest form of breast cancer).
  • About 39,620 women will die from breast cancer
who is at risk
Who Is At Risk?
  • Two factors greatly influence the risk of developing breast cancer:
  • 1. Being a woman

The disease is over 100 times more common in women than in men.

  • 2. Age

Approximately 77% of women with breast cancer are age 50 or older at the time of diagnosis.

why are older women more at risk
Why Are Older Women More At Risk?
  • Exposure to reproductive hormones, like estrogen, over a lifetime may increase the risk. This is influenced by:
    • Age
    • Age of first menstrual period
    • Number of pregnancies
    • Age at menopause
    • History of taking medication that contains estrogen
other risk factors
Other Risk Factors
  • Family history of breast cancer
    • Having a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer approximately doublesa woman’s risk.
    • Most women with breast cancer do not have a first-degree relative with the disease.
  • History of noncancerous breast disease
  • Never having children or having first live birth after age 30
other risk factors1
Other Risk Factors
  • Starting monthly periods before age 12
  • Starting menopause after age 55
  • More than 5 years of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy
  • Use of alcohol, especially two or more drinks daily
  • Obesity, especially excessive weight gain
  • Physical inactivity
  • The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass.
  • Other signs include:
    • Generalized swelling of part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
    • Skin irritation or dimpling
symptoms other signs cont
Symptoms – other signs (cont)
  • Nipple pain or retraction (turning inward)
  • Redness or scaliness of the nipple or breast skin
  • Discharge other than breast milk
detection methods
Detection Methods
  • Nearly all breast cancers can be successfully treated if detected early.
  • A mammogram is the best method for detecting breast cancer because often it can identify cancer before physical symptoms develop.
  • All women should have regular breast examinations by a health provider.
the american cancer society s screening recommendations
The American Cancer Society’s Screening Recommendations
  • Clinical Breast Exam should be part of a periodic health exam, about every three years for women in their 20s and 30s, and every year for women 40 and older.
  • Women should know how their breasts normally feel and report any breast change promptly to their health care provider. Breast Self Examination is an option for women starting in their 20s.
the american cancer society s screening recommendations1
The American Cancer Society’s Screening Recommendations
  • Yearly mammograms are recommended starting at age 40 and continuing for as long as a woman is in good health.
  • Women at increased risk (e.g., family history, genetic tendency, past breast cancer) should talk with their doctors about the benefits and limitations of starting mammography screening earlier, having additional tests (i.e., breast ultrasound and MRI), or having more frequent exams.
breast self exam
Breast Self Exam
  • Beginning in their 20s, women should be told about the benefits and limitations of BSE. Women should be aware of how their breasts normally feel and report any new breast changes to a health professional as soon as they are found. Finding a breast change does not mean that a cancer is present.
survival rates
Survival Rates
  • 5-year localized survival rate is 98%
  • 5-year overall survival rate is 80%