The Presidency AP Government and Politics
President as Chief Executive Executive Power - enforces federal laws -administers a vast federal bureaucracy- spends 3 trillion a year/ 2.7 million civilian employees
The President as Chief Executivecont. • Appointment Power - cabinets members and their top aides - heads of independent agencies - ambassadors and other diplomats -all federal judges, U.S. marshals, and attorneys • Subject to Senate approval • Limited by senatorial courtesy
The President as Chief Executivecont. Removal Power - POTUS has power to dismiss most officials he or she appoints - Exceptions = federal judges and commissioners of independent regulatory agencies ex: Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
The President as Chief Executivecont. The Cabinet - 14 department heads and attorney general - Cabinet has divided loyalties; institutional goals of their department -Interest groups have close ties with cabinet - Congress competes with president for influence over cabinet depts.
The President as Chief Legislator • Legislative Powers - not directly stated in Constitution - Constitution gives these powers: *required to give State of the Union *POTUS can bring issues to Congress “from time to time * veto legislation - Use roles as national leader and head of party to set public policy
The President as Chief Legislator Veto Power - Options; 1. sign it 2. Veto it; Congress can override 2/3 vote in each chamber 3. Wait 10 full days and if Congress is still in session it becomes law without signature 4. Pocket veto
The President as Chief Legislatorcont. • Veto Power Cont. - Line-Item Veto * Must accept or reject entire bill * Used at State level by governors *Clinton got Line-Item Veto passed, but SC ruled unconstitutional * Must be added as an amendment to Constitution
The President as Chief Legislatorcont. Working with Congress - Cooperative bipartisan relationship -Other strategies used: * assigning White House liaison to lobby *working with majority/minority leaders *Using media to get attention on issues *Using high approval ratings to persuade * Bargaining with swing legislators (pork)
The President as Chief Legislatorcont. Divided Government - occurs when president and congress are controlled by different parties/ also when chambers of Congress are different parties - frequent over the past half century (midterms) - Consequences of divided govt. 1. partisanship has heightened/ more difficult for moderates 2. Slowed legislative process/ gridlock 3. Decline of public trust in government
The President as Chief LegislatorCont. Divided government cont. - How does POTUS overcome a divided government? 1. Use the media 2. Threatening to veto objectionable legislation 3. Making deals with key legislators 4. Building coalitions with key interest groups 5. Increasing reliance on White House Staff (RahmEmanual)
The President as Chief Legislator AP Tip!!!!! Divided government has been persistent fact of political life for the past half century. A number of free response questions asked to explain the impact of divided government on public policy, legislative gridlock and federal appointments.