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INTRODUCTION TO SSE. Solid different with liquid and gas in the way of the arrangement of atom. Distortion of the crystal is needed to accommodate the solute, unless the two species of solid is very similar. SOLID SOLUTION.

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introduction to sse
  • Solid different with liquid and gas in the way of the arrangement of atom.
  • Distortion of the crystal is needed to accommodate the solute, unless the two species of solid is very similar.
solid solution
  • Solid solution is when two or more solid mix together in a manner of similar to liquids.
  • Consider as a solution but not a compound.
factors to form solid solution
Factors to form solid solution

Hume-Rothery Rules

Substitutional Solid Solution Rules

  • Atomic radii:
  • Difference in atomic radii between two atoms less about ± 15%

2) Crystal structure:

- Crystal structures for metals of both atom types must be same


3) Electronegativity:

  • Similar electronegativity
  • More electropositive one element and more electronegative the other, the greater they will form an intermetallic compound

4) Valences:

- Higher valency metal have more tendency to dissolve another metal than on of a lower valency



  • Solute atoms must be smaller than the pores in the solvent lattice.
  • The solute and solvent should have similar electronegativity.
substitutional solid solution
  • substitutionally, by replacing a solvent particle in the lattice
  • Solute( compound in minor concentration) or impurity atoms replace or substitute for the host atoms
  • Species B occupies lattices sites where species A sat. As long as crystal can accommodate B without altering its basic structure, a solid solution occur

Example of substitution solid solution is copper an nickel

    • Two elements completely soluble with each other
    • The atomic radii for the both are almost the same(15% or less difference.( copper 0.128 while nickel 0.125)
    • Electronegativities are 1.9 and 1.8
    • Same crystal structure
    • Similar valency
interstitial solid solution
  • An interstitial solid solution results when the solute atoms are small enough to fit into the interstices of the metal lattice.
  • The atoms of the parent or solvent metal are bigger than the atoms of the alloying or solute metal.
  • the solute atoms occupy the interstitial positions (holes between the atoms) in the crystal lattice of the solute).
  • The elements that can form interstitial solid solutions with transition metals are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and boron.


  • behavior of solid solution where α and β are miscible in all proportions.
  • show two metals which forms a solid solution at all relative concentrations of the two species.
  • solid solution can mix when :
  • i. the species are similar in size.
  • ii. Chemically similar.
  • iii. Both form body centre cubic crystal lattices.


  • shows the phases of a mixture of two substances in varying concentrations.
  • only limited amount of α will dissolve in β.
  • the large solid region in between α and β is not solid solution.
  • It reveal two phase in α+β region. It form separate phase, perhaps lamella or grains.
how to separate a solid mixture

How to Separate a Solid Mixture

Solid mixture is a non- homogeneous crystalline structure

Each of the solid has different properties :

-thermodynamic properties



how to separate a solid mixture1
How to Separate a Solid Mixture
  • In order to separate the solid mixture is by using a driving force.