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French Revolution:. PHASE 3: Radical Republic to Directory. The Radical Republic. The Radical Republic. By 1792 popular opinion had turned against the Monarchy !. Fueled by freedom of the Press. The Radical Republic. The National Convention (the legislature) writes a new constitution

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french revolution

French Revolution:

PHASE 3: Radical Republic to Directory

the radical republic
The Radical Republic
  • The National Convention (the legislature) writes a new constitution
  • Ended the monarchy
  • Made France a REPUBLIC– a government with elected officials
the radical republic1
The Radical Republic
  • Universal male suffrage – all adult male citizens given the right to vote
reforms of the republic
Reforms of the Republic
  • Primary goal was to encourage greater equality
  • Universal Elementary Education
reforms of the republic1
Reforms of the Republic
  • New land for peasants
  • Introduced wage & price controls
  • Abolished slavery in French colonies
  • Abolished the Catholic Church
reforms of the republic2
Reforms of the Republic
  • Other reforms to rid France of Old Regime:
    • Converted to metric system
    • Adopted new calendar
    • New street names
    • No formal pronouns or titles
the sans culottes lead the way
The Sans-Culottes Lead the Way!
  • The Sans-Culottes (“without knee breeches”) – shopkeepers, artisans, & workers – were in charge
the sans culottes lead the way1
The Sans-Culottes Lead the Way!
  • Rejected elaborate clothing
  • Called each other “citizen” & “citizeness”
  • Considered patriotic
slide11
Symbols

of the

Revolution

slide12
Revolutionary Slogan:
  • “liberte, egalite, fraternite”
  • “Liberty, equality, fraternity!”
slide15
The new anthem – The Marseillaise

To arms, citizens!

Form your battalions,

Let us march, let us march!

execution of the king
Execution of the King
  • In 1793, King Louis is tried, convicted, and beheaded for treason by radicals

“Iforgive those who are guilty of my death…”

execution of the king1
Execution of the King
  • Execution of the king threatened foreign thrones
  • Monarchs of Great Britain, Spain, & Netherlands joined Austria & Prussia in an alliance against France

“The kings in alliance try to frighten us, but we hurl at their feet, as a gauge of battle, the French king’s head” - Danton

two groups in the national convention
Two Groups in the National Convention
  • JACOBINS (extreme radicals):
  • Supported by sans-culottes
  • Had voted to execute Louis XVI
  • Leaders: Robespierre, Danton & Marat
two groups in the national convention1
Two Groups in the National Convention
  • GIRONDISTS (moderate radicals)
  • Felt revolution had gone far enough
  • Wanted to protect wealthy middle class
  • Wanted to spread ideas
committee of public safety
Committee of Public Safety
  • Formed by Jacobins to direct war/repel foreign invasion
  • Adopted conscription (the draft)
committee of public safety1
Committee of Public Safety
  • Also dealt with counter-revolutionarieswithin France (those who wanted to stop the Revolution)
  • Formed the Revolutionary Tribunal – court for suspected counter-revolutionaries
committee of public safety2
Committee of Public Safety
  • Jacobins arrest Girondists as being secret royalists!
  • Why?
committee of public safety3
Committee of Public Safety
  • Girondists retaliate!
  • Charlotte Corday, (Girondist) killed Jacobin leader Marat
committee of public safety4
Committee of Public Safety
  • His assassination used as an excuse for:
  • the Reign of Terror...
slide28
The Reign

of Terror

the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror!
  • Led by Radicals (especially Robespierre)
  • Hunted down suspected traitors & counter-revolutionaries & turned them over to the Revolutionary Tribunal
the reign of terror1
The Reign of Terror
  • Swift trials and harsh sentences
  • Marie Antoinette executed
  • Over 80% of those killed are commoners
  • 40,000 dead total
the reign of terror2
The Reign of Terror
  • By spring of 1794, France was winning the war & increased French territory
  • People called for an end to the Terror but…
  • Robespierre ordered new arrests!!
the thermidor reaction july
The Thermidor Reaction (July)
  • Robespierre himself is sent to the guillotine as people seek an end to the Reign of Terror
  • The people called for a new government
the directory
The Directory
  • Another new constitution is written
  • Government under the control of the wealthy middle class
  • Only men with property could vote
  • Executive council of 5 men called Directors
  • 2-house legislature (bicameral)
  • Doesn’t last long…