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The Gilded Age 1877-1900 . Technological Advances . Telephone Bicycle Typewriter Elevator Root Beer Linoleum “floor covering of the future” Steel (skyscrapers, bridges) . Industrialization and The Rise of Big Business .

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The gilded age 1877 1900

The Gilded Age 1877-1900

Technological advances
Technological Advances

  • Telephone

  • Bicycle

  • Typewriter

  • Elevator

  • Root Beer

  • Linoleum “floor covering of the future”

  • Steel (skyscrapers, bridges)

Industrialization and the rise of big business
Industrialization and The Rise of Big Business

  • During the Gilded Age, huge corporations were formed that employed thousands and produced enormous amounts of goods

  • The founders of these companies amassed great wealth while their workers were poorly paid

Captains of industry
Captains of Industry

  • Andrew Carnegie: bought out his suppliers and his competitors until he controlled the steel industry.

  • John D. Rockefeller: turned his company into a “trust” by buying stock in his competitors companies until he controlled them.

Sherman anti trust act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act

  • Passed in 1890 to make trusts illegal

  • Companies found many ways to get around this law

  • 1906-, the government brought suit against Standard Oil and in 1911 the trust was finally ordered to dissolve

The problems of the industrial workers
The Problems of the Industrial Workers

  • There was almost no federal government regulation of businesses at this time, therefore there was: nominimum wage,nomaximum number of hours per week,nohigher pay for overtime,noregulation of unhealthy or unsafe working conditions, andnohealth insurance or other employee benefits.

  • Industrialization created low-wage, low-skilled jobs that made employees easy to replace. This led to the growth of labor unions.

Communication improves
Communication Improves

  • 1866- Transatlantic telegraph cable

  • 1876- telephone- by 1900- 1.5 million phones installed

  • Improvements in printing- wide circulation of newspapers- mass advertising

Mass production
Mass Production

  • From small shops to large factories

  • Workers perform 1 task over and over again

  • Long hours

    • 10-15 hours per day

    • 6-7 days per week

The early labor union movement
The Early Labor Union Movement

  • Labor Unions tried to improve wages and working conditions by collective bargaining and threatening strikes

  • Between 1877 and 1893 there were several huge strikes

  • Union popularity declined because the public associated labor unions with violence

The problems of farmers
The Problems of Farmers

  • Westward expansion led to overproduction of crops – farm prices drop

  • Railroad rates going up- more expensive to transport crops

  • Farmers became deeply in debt

  • Farmers began the Populist Movement

    • Asking for rr regulation and monetary reform to releive their indebtedness

Problems of immigrants
Problems of Immigrants

  • The thousands of immigrants that came from Southern and Eastern Europe between 1890-1915 were often poor and illiterate

  • They accepted unskilled jobs in factories and had to move in to overly crowded cities

Problems of immigrants con t
Problems of Immigrants (Con’t)

  • Triple Hardship: low wages, pooe housing conditions, and nativism (prejudice against immigrants)

  • Nativists encouraged the government to pass immigration restriction laws

Problems of minorities
Problems of Minorities

  • The right to vote promised by the Fifteenth Amendment was undermined by the use of poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses

  • Asians: The Chinese Exclusion Act banned further immigration from China

Big cities
Big Cities

  • Tightly knit ethnic communities begin to shape the big cities

Urban problems
Urban Problems

  • Industrial cities grew rapidly ad poor workers lived in slums

  • Police and fire departments were understaffed

  • Clean water and sewer systems were inadequate

  • Tenement houses were were crowded and unsafe

Urban problems con t
Urban Problems (Con’t)

  • City governments were often corrupt “political macines” stayed in power by winning the votes of the immigrants, but often abused their power

  • Graft is when a public official uses his office to make himself rich through bribery or stealing public funds