THE RENAISSANCE 1485-1660. In the late 1400’s changes in people’s values, beliefs, and behavior mark the beginning of the English Renaissance. THE Renaissance had begun earlier in the century in Italy. Renaissance is French for “rebirth”.
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In the late 1400’s changes in people’s values, beliefs, and behavior mark the beginning of the English Renaissance. • THE Renaissance had begun earlier in the century in Italy.
Renaissance is French for “rebirth” • Renewed interest in classical learning, particularly the writings of the Greeks and Romans • Led to curiosity about their world and themselves~ a renewal of the human spirit; of creativity & curiosity
HUMANISTS • Intellectual movement that looked to the Latin & Greek classics to discover new answers to old questions: • WHAT IS A HUMAN BEING? • WHAT IS A GOOD LIFE?
ROLE OF THE CHURCH • Most Europeans/British were Roman Catholic – the church was very powerful (even in politics)& rich • Popes/Church financed artists, architects & scholars • For example: Pope Julius commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel
Renaissance Humanists (Christians) had no conflict between the Church’s teachings and those of ancient Roman moralists, they sought to harmonize these two sources of wisdom: Use the classics to strengthen, not discredit, Christianity – Teach people how to live and how to rule
THE PRINTING PRESS • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg, who published the first complete book in 1455, the printing press reached England in 1476. • William Caxton set up a printing press in Westminster (part of present-day London) and published approximately 100 titles.
THE REFORMATION • Strong feelings of patriotism & new ideas from the continent are evident in Great Britain • People began to question the authority of the Catholic Church and the financial burdens placed upon them by the pope • Humanists began to ridicule the old superstitions, idleness of monks, and the loose living & personal wealth of priests and bishops
PROTESTANT REFORMATION IN ENGLAND • 1531 – Henry VIII was refused an annulment and broke with the Catholic Church, declaring himself head of the English Church • The basis of the Protestant Church who believed that religion was a matter between an individual and God. Many felt Henry VIII did not go far enough in reforming the church.
The Tudors • Ruled for approximately 100 years: ~ Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547): ruthless & bloody ruler, but also a renaissance man; he formed the Royal Navy ~Edward VI (r. 1547-1553): became king at age 9 ~Mary (r. 1553-1558): “Bloody Mary” determined to undo the wrongs done to her mother; a devout Catholic, she restored the pope’s power & hunted down Protestants
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Reestablished the Church of England-rejected the pope’s authority • “Virgin Queen” • 1588 – defeat of the Spanish Armada; an era of peace followed • Elizabeth read extensively and encouraged & inspired many writers