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SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. PowerPoint Presentation
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SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.

SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.

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SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.

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  1. SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. • a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens. • b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville. • c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen’s Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.

  2. What is the ANTEBELLUM PERIOD? • The ANTEBELLUM PERIOD is the period before the civil war. Depending upon the context, this could be the years after the American Revolution up to the Civil War or only involve the interval of greatest turmoil, disagreement and change. That time period is 1838 to 1860.

  3. Based upon the context of New York journalist John O’Sullivan’s 1845 article, stating that it was the “manifest destiny of our country to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free descendants of our yearly multiplying millions” what is MANIFEST DESTINY?

  4. The idea that the boundaries of the United States should spread from East to West, North to South and that it was a right given to the states by God.

  5. Who was president during the time period of 1845 to 1849 and how did his election reflect manifest destiny? • President Polk – Promised to expand US territory • annexed Texas

  6. What events occurred 1821 to 1845 to change the amount of land held by the US? • 1821 – Mexico declares independence from Spain - Texas declares independence from Mexico – see site on Alamo – admitted into the union 1845 • Mexican-American War

  7. What is the meaning of the word “annexed” and give an example of its use. • “added on” – example, Texas was annexed, or added on to the United States in 1845.

  8. Remember the Alamo!


  10. What caused the Mexican American War? • Mexico was angry about the annexation of Texas and the United States wanted to make its southern border the Rio Grande, an area still under the control of Mexico and not Texas. President Polk offered to buy this area and California, but Mexico refused and instead invaded Texas.

  11. What is considered the final battle of the Mexican American War? • The battle at Chapultepec Castle – General Winfield Scott and his commanders, including Captain Robert E. Lee, fought against Santa Anna’s much larger force – winning with the use of superior weaponry, more sophisticated engineering techniques and superior scouting.

  12. What occurred after the war specific to territory and the United States goal for expansion? • After American forces took Mexico City, the two countries signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The treaty gave the United States more than 500,000 • square miles of territory, which today includes California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, most of New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexico • agreed to drop its claims on Texas lands at the Rio Grande. In turn, Polk agreed to pay Mexico $18.25 million, about 20 percent less than he had originally • offered for the land. More than 112,000 Americans fought in the war, including over 2,100 Georgians.

  13. What additional territory did the United States acquire prior to 1860? • 1853 – purchased New Mexico for 10 million dollars – now country extended coast to coast. • Border of Oregon changed to 49th parallel

  14. Where was the second gold rush (the first was in Georgia – Dahlonega) • John Marshall was building a lumber mill for John Sutter on California’s American Fork River. He discovered something shiny in the river. Marshall had discovered the gold in the California hills. The two men tried to keep the discovery • secret, but word got out. In December 1848, President James Polk confirmed the presence of gold, and a national stampede toward California got underway.

  15. How many people migrated to California? • Approximately 80,000 people traveled out West in search of gold.

  16. Draw a map of the United States with respect to land area prior to 1860 (use the box to the right to draw your map).

  17. Check point

  18. 1. What was the concept ofmanifest destiny?

  19. 2. Did Santa Anna have reason to be angry with the Texians? • How would your life be different today if Texas had remained a part of Mexico?

  20. 3. What boundary disputewas reflected by thecampaign slogan “54-40or fight”?

  21. Section 2

  22. What is “states’ rights”? • States’ rights is the belief that the state’s interests should take precedence over the interests of the national government.

  23. How was the country “dividing” with respect to states’ • Northern states believed that, in order for the United States to function as one Union, political decisions should be made that would benefit the entire country. They believed that all states should abide by laws made by Congress, signed by the president, or decreed by the courts. • Southern states, on the other hand, believed deeply in the idea of states’ rights. They thought that states had the right to govern themselves and to decide what would be best for their own needs and situation. They believed that politicians from a state like Maine or New York could not possibly understand or care about South Carolina or Georgia.

  24. How did the “class” system differ between North and South? • The class structure in the North was generally • based on wealth. That wealth allowed people to move upward from one social class to another. In the South, however, the social structure was based more on class and, even though that included money, being “born into the right family.” Southern class differences were quite rigid, and it was far more difficult to move upward from one group to another. This became even more rigid during the Antebellum period.

  25. How would you define “border states”? • States that did not believe in states’ rights but were pro slavery • Kentucky, Maryland, West Virginia (formed during the Civil War), Delaware, Missouri

  26. Northern States said blacks were equal

  27. Using map 35, identify the border states.

  28. Summarize from GPB the video clip on AMISTADT and answer the attached questions.

  29. Identify the border states

  30. What defined a “large plantation owner?” • Greater than 50 slaves and more than 1000 acres of land

  31. What percent of the population were large plantation owners? • Less than 1% of the white population were large plantation owners and this group were among the wealthiest people in the United States

  32. Describe the lifestyles of owners of small plantations. • Owners of small plantations owned between twenty and forty nine slaves and between one hundred and one thousand acres. They made up about 3 percent of the white southern families. They controlled most of the wealth in the South and produced most of its political leaders.

  33. Describe the lifestyle of farmers with slaves • Farmers who owned fewer than twenty slaves were about 20 percent of the southern whites. Most of these farmers owned five or fewer slaves. They made up the small middle class around towns and cities. The head of the household took a direct, day-to-day approach to running the farm. Homes were comfortable but not nearly the size of plantation mansions. Women of the house usually worked side-by-side with a household servant.

  34. Who were Yeoman farmers? • Yeoman farmers were by far the largest group of white southerners, making up about 75 percent of the white population. These were independent farmers who often lived from season to season.

  35. Who were overseers? • Overseers (persons hired to manage slaves on a day-to-day basis) were usually considered part of this class. • Some of the “better off” yeoman farmers did have a few slaves, but the majority scrambled just to eke out a living.

  36. Approximately how many black individuals were listed as “free blacks” in the 1860 South? • Less than 6% of the total free black population of 500,000 lived in the South – most concentrated in Maryland and Virginia.

  37. Describe the lifestyle/rights for free blacks • A few owned slaves and had small plantations or large farms • Did not have the right to vote except in two northern states, could not get an education, lived in segregated areas

  38. How many slaves lived in the south? • Slaves were about 4 million of the total black population in the country in the 1860s. By far, the majority lived in the South, and by 1860, about 11.5 percent of the slaves lived in Georgia.

  39. Examine figure 21 – what correlation can be made about slavery and cotton production?

  40. What is meant by the term “Cotton is King” as applied to the south? • 50% of all US exports during this time period came from Southern cotton • most of the world’s cotton came from the Southern states

  41. Who were the abolitionists? • Individuals who wanted to abolish slavery – began with the 1820 religious revival • Uncle Tom’s cabin, published in 1852, also heightened awareness of the horrors of slavery

  42. Read article “The Cost of Slavery” and answer the following questions:

  43. Who was Frederick Douglass? • The best-known black abolitionist was Frederick Douglass, a former slave, who published a newspaper called the North Star. Douglass was also a spirited orator (speaker) and traveled around the country describing the evils of slavery.

  44. What did it mean to be a “slave state” • Slave states were states that allowed ownership of slaves