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Module 2: Content-Area Literacy

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  1. Module 2: Content-Area Literacy Adolescent Literacy – Professional Development Unit 1, Session 3

  2. Reading Like a Critic, Historian, Mathematician, & Scientist Strategic Reading in Four Major Content Areas

  3. Essential Questions • Module 2 Question • What role can content-area teachers play in helping adolescents acquire general and discipline-specific literacy skills? • Unit 1, Session 3 Questions • What are the ways in which content-area teachers can improve content instruction by highlighting and explicitly teaching disciplinary literacy strategies? • How are general literacy strategies tailored to fit particular disciplinary goals? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  4. Revisiting Our Last Session • Given your reading of Lee & Spratley… • Share with a partner what you wrote in the 2nd column of your 3-column organizer. • What are the unique ways in which students must read in your discipline ? • What makes reading in your discipline challenging / different from other content areas? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  5. Warm-Up • Think for a moment about what is most important to a Mathematician, Scientist, Historian, or Literary Critic when reading a document. • Read the short article: • “Kyoto and Beyond: Kyoto Protocol FAQs” • http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/kyoto/ • Use the Circle of Viewpoints protocol to respond to the article from the perspective of a Mathematician, Scientist, Historian, or Literary Critic Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  6. Warm-Up Circle of Viewpoints: • I am thinking ofThe Kyoto Protocolfrom the point of view ofa Mathematician, Scientist, Historian, or Literary Critic. • I think ... describe the topic from your viewpoint. Be an actor – take on the character of your viewpoint. • A question I have from this viewpoint is ... Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  7. “To a man with a hammer,everything looks like a nail.” ~Mark Twain  Coming Back Together: • Which parts of the text did you focus on from your disciplinary/content-area perspective? • Which parts did you ignore? • What was it like to read the article from your point of view? • What makes reading from this perspective challenging? • If you were going to use this text in your classroom, what might you ask students to do with it? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  8. Given the Texts Students Will Read • Textbooks • Full length books • Book chapters • Journal and magazine articles • Newspaper articles • Historically situated primary documents • Multimedia and digital texts Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  9. There are a Number of “Generic” Strategies • Monitoring comprehension • Pre-reading strategies (e.g., anticipation guides) • Setting goals • Thinking about what one already knows • Asking questions • Making predictions • Testing predictions against the text • Re-reading • Summarizing Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  10. How Can You Apply/Tailor “Generic” Strategies to Particular Disciplinary Needs? • Building prior knowledge • Building specialized vocabulary • Learning to deconstruct complex sentences • Using knowledge of text structures and genres to predict main and subordinate ideas • Mapping graphic (and mathematical) representations against explanations in the text • Posing discipline relevant questions • Comparing claims and propositions across texts • Using norms for reasoning within the discipline (i.e., what counts as evidence) to evaluate claims Lee, C. D., & Spratley, A. (2009). Teaching Content Knowledge and Reading Strategies in Tandem. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  11. Implications for Reading Content Given the habits of mind ways of reading we wish to encourage… AND Given the ways in which content-area texts are difficult for students to access and use… We need general and specific strategies for supporting students in overcoming difficulties and focusing on content-area concepts. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  12. Finding Disciplinary Strategies • Please read/review one or more of the following: • Reading Mathematics • By Thomasenia Lott Adams Teaching Reading in Mathematics and Science • By Mary Lee Barton, Clare Heidema, & Deborah Jordan • Promoting Reading Comprehension in Social Studies • By Dixie D.Massey & Tina L. Heafner Building Literacy in Social Studies, Ch. 6: Strategies for Textbook Literacy • By Donna Ogle, Ron Klemp, & Bill McBride Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  13. Finding Disciplinary Strategies • Please read/review one or more of the following: • Improving Reading Skills in the Science Classroom • Teaching Today Skills and Strategies at Work (Reading in the Sciences) • Just Read Now! (part of Just Read Florida!) • Guidelines for teaching middle and high school students to read and write well • Judith A. Langer, Elizabeth Close, Janet Angelis, and Paula Preller Shouldn’t They Already Know How to Read? Comprehension Strategies in High School English • Julie Gorlewski Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  14. Finding Disciplinary Strategies • While reading/reviewing the article(s), please refer to a content-area text you brought to this session. • Make notes on a 3-Column Chart as you read/review the suggestions each article gives for helping students better understand the text you brought. • How are instructional goals/strategies connected? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  15. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  16. Anything New? Coming Back Together: • What did you find that was new? • What did you find that reinforces work you are already doing? • What did you find that might work best for your content area? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  17. Categories of Cognitive Strategies • Neufeld (2005) reviews general reading strategies found to support reading and learning: • Question asking and answering • Clarifying a purpose for reading • Overviewing the text • Activating prior knowledge relevant to the text • Making predictions about the text • Attending to text structure • Creating summaries • Monitoring comprehension and using fix-up strategies Neufeld, P. (2005). Comprehension instruction in content area classes. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  18. How Do These Translate into Concrete Strategies in Your Discipline? • Look again at Adlit.org’s Strategy Library • Look at Project Zero’s Thinking Routines • Also look at the following strategies from Just Read Florida! • Discussion Strategies • Active Reading Strategies • Vocabulary Strategies • Organization Strategies Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  19. How Do These Translate into Concrete Strategies in Your Discipline? • How are these strategies connected to what you read? • To the habits of mind in your discipline? • Which strategies are you already using? • Which might you adopt and/or adapt? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  20. Wrap-Up: What Might You Do Now? • Revisit the short article • “Kyoto and Beyond: Kyoto Protocol FAQs” • http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/kyoto/ • What strategy (or strategies) might you use with students reading this article in YOUR content-area? • How would the strategies serve your particular instructional purposes? Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  21. Wrap-Up: Reading in Math • Re-reading & close reading • Defining vocabulary: Examples vs. non-examples • Defining vocabulary: Everyday use/mathematical use • Defining vocabulary: Reviewing homophones • Creating word walls • Marking the text to highlight, define, show work • Problem-solving steps: • Read the problem • Understand the problem • Solve the problem • Look back • Explicitly noting relationship between words, numbers, symbols Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  22. Image from Mr. Follett ‘s “Weapons of Math Destruction” blog: http://mrfollett.wordpress.com/tag/word-wall/ Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  23. Wrap-Up: Reading in Science • Defining technical vocabulary • Reviewing Latin/Greek roots and word parts (morphology) • Creating word walls • Marking the text to highlight, define, show work • Reading and writing to focus on science “process skills” • Observation, Measurement, Experimentation, Communication, & Critical thinking • Making connections between texts, self, world • Reading with a particular purpose in mind • Questioning/Hypothesis-generating while reading • Reviewing and using text structure to guide understanding • Creating diagrams, flowcharts, semantic webs • Charting steps in a process, phases in a cycle, parts of a system Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  24. Wrap-Up: Reading in Social Studies • Defining vocabulary: • Historical meaning, contemporary meaning, meaning in other subjects • E.g., “revolution,” “interment,” “Republican” • Creating word walls • Reading with a particular purpose in mind • Reading for bias/for a particular viewpoint • Comparing and contrasting viewpoints • Making connections between texts, self, world • Reviewing and using text structure to guide understanding • Creating timelines • Double-entry/multi-column notes for comparing sources Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  25. Wrap-Up: Reading in English Language Arts • Reading with a particular purpose in mind • Previewing vocabulary relevant to plot, theme • Reading for author intent, theme, perspective • Comparing & contrasting viewpoints across characters/texts • Making connections between texts, self, world • Reviewing and using text structure to guide understanding • Reviewing components of different genres to guide understanding • Poems, plays, short stories, novels, essays • Double-entry/multi-column notes for comparing characters/ authors/texts Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  26. Further Study • This might be an ideal time to begin a study group around content-area strategies to improve reading. • We suggest systematically exploring the strategies listed on the three websites noted in this session: • Adlit.org • Project Zero’s Visible Thinking/Thinking Routines • Just Read Florida! • A department, content-area team, grade-level team, or entire staff might spend an agreed-upon amount of time tailoring and trying the strategies on these pages. Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  27. Further Study • We suggest, for systematic study, that teams of teachers explore the strategies within categories: • Either as “pre- /guided-/ post-” strategies (Adlit.org) • Or as strategies for particular instructional purposes • Discussion Strategies • Active Reading Strategies • Vocabulary Strategies • Organization Strategies Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  28. References Adams, T. L. (2003). Reading mathematics: More than words can say. The Reading Teacher, 56(8), 786–795. CBC News. (2007). Kyoto and beyond: Kyoto protocol FAQs. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/kyoto/ Gorlewski, J. (2009). Research for the classroom: Shouldn’t they already know how to read? Comprehension strategies in high school English. Urbana, IL: NCTE. Just Read Now! (n.d.). Skills and strategies that work. Just Read Florida! Retrieved from http://www.justreadnow.com/content/science/skills.htm Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3

  29. References Langer, J. A., with Close, E., Angelis, J., & Preller, P. (2000). Guidelines for teaching middle and high school students to read and write well: Six features of effective instruction. Albany, NY: National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement. Massey, D. D., & Heafner, T. L. (2004). Promoting Reading Comprehension in Social Studies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(1), 26–40. Ogle, D., Klemp, R., & McBride, B. (2007). Building literacy in social studies: Strategies for improving comprehension and critical thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Chapter 1 Online: Reading Social Studies Texts Chapter 6 Online: Strategies for Textbook Literacy Module 2: Unit 1, Session 3