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The War to End all Wars

The War to End all Wars

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The War to End all Wars

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  1. The War to End all Wars

  2. The Costs of the War Economic Costs Political Changes • War destroyed national economies • Farmland, cities devastated • Economic chaos in much of Europe • Cost Europe role as dominant economic region of world • U.S., Japan, others prospered during war • World War I caused widespread political unrest • Communist revolution in Russia • Monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire overthrown • Political, social turmoil would shape world in years to come • Human Costs • Nearly 9 million soldiers killed in battle • Millions wounded, taken prisoner • Almost an entire generation of young German, Russian, French men died, were wounded in war • Deadly outbreak of influenza spread by returning soldiers killed some 50 million worldwide, spring 1918

  3. US Factoid – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

  4. German Collapse Balance of power shifted • Allied forces stopped German assault in Second Battle of the Marne • Allies now on the offensive • Allies used tanks, aircraft; gained huge amounts of territory quickly

  5. German Collapse Germany a defeated force • Many Germans gave up without a fight • Began to doubt their own power • Great turmoil within German ranks

  6. German Collapse End of war • Allied forces broke through Hindenburg Line • German leaders sought armistice with Allies • Other Central Powers also admitted defeat, war ended

  7. Armistice • Three days of discussion. • Although Germany they protested a few of terms, they were in no position to negotiate. • Armistice was signed in CIWL #2419 (“Le Wagon de l’Armistice”) • The same wagon also used for the 1940 armistice between France and Hitler-Germany.

  8. Armistice • Russia & Central Powers, 1917 • Brest-Litvosk • Germany, 1918 • Compiegne • Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti, 1918 • Ended First World War on Italian front • Armistice of Mudros • Ottoman Empire and the Allies

  9. Armistice • A situation where the warring parties agree to stop fighting. Not necessarily an end to a war, but a cease fire. • Latin – arma (weapons) statium (stopping) Peace treaty negotiations usually taking place during…

  10. Armistice with Germany (Compiegne) • Armistice treat between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiegne Forest on 11 November 1918. • Marked end of First World War on the Western Front. • Principle signatories: • Marshal Ferdinand Foch (Allied Commander-in-chief) • Matthias Erzberger (Germany’s rep)

  11. Armistice • Signed between 5:12 to 5:20 a.m., 11 November but came into effect at 11am. “the 11th hour of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month…”

  12. Picture taken after signing Armistice

  13. A Difficult Peace Wilson’s Vision Allied Goals Leaders of four major Allies all had different ideas of peace treaty French wanted to punish Germany, reparations for cost of war British wanted to punish Germany, but not weaken it • Wilson announced his vision of world peace, Fourteen Points • Included reduction of weapons, right of people to choose own government • Proposed organization of world nations, protect from aggression

  14. What about Italy? Italy’s leader hoped to gain territory for his nation, but was disappointed to find himself mostly ignored by other leaders during peace talks.

  15. The Four Major Leaders

  16. By The Numbers

  17. MobilizedDeadWoundedMissing/PoW Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 Great Britain 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 France 8,410,000 1,375,800 3,266,000 537,000 Austria-Hungary 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 US 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,526 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029 Japan 800,000 300 907 3 Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000 Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958 Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659 Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000 Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318 Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000

  18. Influenza Epidemic • Brought over by infected Americans • “Spanish flu” • 1 in 4 Americans has contracted • Spread the globe • Estimations of 50 million to have died from the outbreak

  19. French soldiers waiting for their meal.

  20. Trench with French soldiers

  21. The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders

  22. German POW, Spring 1918

  23. Child Soldiers

  24. Poster War

  25. The Flying Aces of World War I FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

  26. Poison Gas

  27. American soldier wearing his gas mask

  28. Mustard Gas Burns • “I had lots of burns from the mustard gas and I’ve had treatment all my life,” Mr Bain said. • “You could taste it in the air.” • With visible scarring on his hands, Mr Bain said the plaque had made his experiences of the war “a part of history”.