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The War to End All Wars. (1914-1918). War Begins. CENTRAL POWERS Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and Bulgaria. ALLIES France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy .

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war begins
War Begins

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and Bulgaria.


France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy.

  • Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary assassinated and alliances kick in!

USA: neutral and thankful for two oceans!!

Well, sort of neutral…

At the onset of the war, US traded with ALLIES.

war drags on
War Drags On
  • Trench warfare with long bloody battles
  • 475 miles of trenches along the Western Front
  • New technology
    • Machine guns, poison gas, mechanized cannons, tanks, planes
submarine warfare
Submarine warfare
  • Blockade to hurt Germany brought retaliation with unrestricted subs around Great Britain.
  • USA warned Germany of “strict accountability” for any attacks on American vessels or citizens.
  • Lusitaniasinks with an overall loss of 1,198 lives including 128 Americans.
  • Sussex Pledge–threat to Germany
  • Germany promised not to sink passenger ships without warning, but…

Meanwhile, Woodrow Wilson is elected again in 1916 with the campaign slogan, “He kept us out of war.”

to make the world safe for democracy
“to make the world safe for democracy”
  • Germany- unrestricted submarine warfareresumes for all
  • Zimmermann Telegram (1917)
  • Woodrow Wilson asked for a declaration of war after Germany had sunk 4 unarmed American merchant ships, (April 2, 1917).
  • Wilson’s Ideal: international order based on the ideals of democracy.
mobilize for war
Mobilize for War
  • Draft
  • Propaganda
    • Congress passed the Espionage, Sabotage, Sedition Acts to suppress dissent
    • Federal agencies and the American Protective League spied on Americans, interned Germans, and arrested members of the IWW
    • The Committee on Public Information led by George Creel was to sell the war to America and the war aims to the world.
    • Renounce all things German
  • Increased Production and rationing
    • War Industries Board, National War Labor Board, Fuel Administration, Food Administration and others to coordinate with businesses
  • Americans fought in Russia, Belgium, Italy, and France.
  • US contributions included food, oil, munitions, and financial credit
  • General “Black Jack” Pershing commanded the AEF
  • Germany eventually demoralized by US troop reserves. (2 million)
  • July, 1918—Second Battle of the Marne began a German withdrawal that was never effectively reversed.
  • Armistice signed November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am.
green fields of france
Green Fields of France

Well how do you do, young Willie McBride?Do you mind if I sit here down by your grave side,And rest for a while 'neath the warm summer sun?I've been working all day and I'm nearly done.I see by your gravestone you were only 19When you joined the dead heroes of 1916.I hope you died well and I hope you died clean.Or, Willie McBride, was it slow and obscene?ChorusDid you leave a wife or a sweetheart behind?In some faithful heart is your memory enshrined?Although you died back in 1916,In that faithful heart are you forever 19?Or are you a stranger without even a nameEnclosed in forever behind the glass-paneIn an old photograph, torn, battered and stainedAnd faded to yellow in a brown leather frame?Chorus

The sun now it shines on the green fields of France,There's a warm summer breeze that makes the red poppies dance.And look how the sun shines from under the clouds.There's no gas, no barbed wire, there's no guns firing now.But here in this graveyard, it's still No Man's LandThe countless white crosses stand mute in the sand.To man's blind indifference to his fellow manTo a whole generation that were butchered and damned.ChorusNow young Willie McBride, I can't help wonder why,Do all those who lie here know why they died?And did they believe when they answered the call,Did they really believe that this war would end wars?For the sorrows, the suffering, the glory, the painThe killing and dying was all done in vain,For young Willie McBride, it all happened again,And again, and again, and again, and again.ChorusDid they beat the drum slowly?did they play the fife lowly?Did they sound the death march as they lowered you down?Did the band play 'The Last Post' in chorus?Did the pipes play 'The Flowers of the Forest'?

  • Wilson’s goals were to prevent a seizure of territories by the victors, provide collective security, national self-determination for smaller European nations, and free trade and freedom of the seas.(laid out in his Fourteen Points)
  • **14thpoint: League of Nations, future international organization to provide a system of collective security.
  • Senate’s opposition to Treaty of Versailles.
  • Wilson refused to compromise and carried his campaign to the people, but collapsed from this heroic effort.