Ch. 12 Part 4 Notes • Title: Texas Becomes A State • Main Idea: Efforts for Texas annexation were given a boost by the changing political atmosphere in the United States. • Key Terms: manifest destiny, joint resolution
The Texas Question • Throughout the years of the Republic, most Texans still wanted Texas to join the USA. • By Houston’s second term, the “Texas Question” became an important issue in American politics. • Some Americans were against annexing Texas because it would benefit slave owners and might cause war with Mexico.
The Texas Question • By April 1844, the USA and Texas signed a treaty that would make Texas a territory of the USA. Texas would also give all its public lands in exchange for the USA to pay all its debts. • Most Texans were surprised when the US Senate rejected the treaty by a vote of 35 to 16. • Most senators opposed it because Texas would enter the US as a slave state and give the South an advantage in the Senate (i.e. South > North).
Polk Wins Election • In the US presidential election of 1844, James K. Polk of the Democratic Party narrowly defeated Henry Clay from the Whig Party. • Polk heavily favored annexation of Texas. • Polk and most Americans believed the USA was destined to expand from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. - This is called manifest destiny.
Polk Wins Election • Settlers wanted to live in fertile lands in Oregon, California, and Texas. • Merchants wanted ports on the Pacific coast where American ships could stop on their way to trade with Asia.
Congress and Texas Approve Annexation • First, the US Congress proposed that Texas be annexed by joint resolution, a resolution passed by both houses of Congress that has the force of law and a simple majority of each house (instead of two-thirds majority vote required by the Senate to approve a treaty). • Congress passed this on February 28, 1845. • The joint resolution provided for immediate statehood, bypassing the time Texas would be a territory.
Congress and Texas Approve Annexation • Second, Anson Jones, president of Texas in 1844, called a special session of the Texas Congress to consider and vote for annexation. • The Texas congress approved annexation on October 13, 1845. • They also wrote a new state constitution. • Third, on December 29, 1845, President Polk signed the resolution that made Texas a state.
Mexico Offers Recognition • France and Great Britain preferred Texas stay an independent nation, rather than joining the USA. • They tried to convince Mexico to recognize Texas so the annexation wouldn’t happen. • In May 1845, Mexico offered to recognize Texas on 1 condition – Texas must reject annexation by the USA. • Texas rejected the proposal and voted to approve annexation by the USA.
“The Republic of Texas is No More!” • On February 19, 1846, Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic, turned the government over to J.Pinkney Henderson, the first governor of the state of Texas. • The Lone Star flag was lowered, and the stars and stripes flag was raised. • Texas officially became the 28th state in the United States of America.
Assignments for Today • 12-4 Guided Reading/Section Quiz Due Wednesday!