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CH 4 Part 2. Tissues Produced By Meristems Complex Tissues. Complex tissues - Composed of two or more kinds of cells Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem. Xylem - Chief conducting tissue for water and minerals that are absorbed by the roots

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tissues produced by meristems complex tissues
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Complex tissues - Composed of two or more kinds of cells
    • Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem.
  • Xylem - Chief conducting tissue for water and minerals that are absorbed by the roots
    • Composed of parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, tracheids and ray cells
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues1
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Vessels – Long tubes made of vessel elements
    • Vessel elements:
      • Thick secondary cell walls
      • Open at both ends
      • Secondary walls develop irregularly
      • Perforation plate between end walls

Vessels

elements

Spiral thickenings on vessel walls

tissues produced by meristems complex tissues2
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Tracheids
    • Tapered at the ends with pairs of pits that allow water to pass from cell to cell
      • Pits - Areas without secondary cell
    • Dead at maturity
    • Thick secondary cell walls
    • May have spiral thickenings on cell walls

Tracheids

  • Rays- Function in lateral conduction and food storage
    • Composed of long-lived parenchyma cells
slide5

Torus – structure to prevent the reverse flow of water

  • Rays – lateral conduction of water, can also act in food storage
    • Parenchyma cells produced by ray initials of vascular cambium
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues3
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Phloem- Conducts dissolved food materials produced by photosynthesis throughout plant
    • Composed of sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers, parenchyma cells and ray cells
    • No secondary cell walls, living cells
    • 4 types of cells
      • Sieve tube members – carry food
      • Companion cells – aid STM
      • Sclerenchyma fibers - support
      • Parenchyma cells - storage
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues4
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Sieve Tube Members:
    • Lack secondary cell walls, nuclei, ribosome, vacuole
      • More room for food to move through
    • Lay end to end to form sieve tubes
    • Walls have sieve plates with small pores
    • Callose forms callus plug - Prevents leaking of sieve tube contents when cell injured, P-protein
    • Movement of substances is called translocation
  • Companion cells - Aid in conduction of food

Phloem

phloem food conducting cells
Phloem: food-conducting cells
  • sieve tube elements & companion cells
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues5
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Epidermis- Protective layer that is one cell-layer thick covering all plant organs
    • Composed mostly of parenchyma cells, guard cells of stomata, secretory glands and hairs

Leaf cross section

tissues produced by meristems complex tissues6
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Cutin- Fatty substance on the surface of outer walls of epidermis that forms cuticle
    • Wax secreted on cuticle
    • Cuticle and wax prevent water loss by evaporation
      • Resistant to bacteria and other disease organisms
  • Root epidermal cells produce root hairs.
    • Increase absorptive area of root surface
  • Leaves have stomatabordered by pairs of guard cells.
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues7
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Periderm- Replaces epidermis when cork cambium begins producing new tissue
  • Constitutes outer bark
  • Primarily composed of cork cells
    • Dead at maturity
    • While still alive, cytoplasm secretes suberin(fatty substance) into walls.
      • Makes cork cells waterproof and helps protect phloem
  • Lenticels- Loosely arranged pockets of parenchyma cells formed by cork cambium that protrude through the surface of periderm. Allows for gaseous exchange.
tissues produced by meristems complex tissues8
Tissues Produced By MeristemsComplex Tissues
  • Secretory Cells and Tissue
    • Secretory cells may function individually or as part of a secretory tissue.
      • Flower nectar
      • Citrus oils
      • Glandular hair mucilage
      • Latex
      • Resins
review
Review
  • Organs and Tissues
  • Meristematic Tissues
    • Apical Meristems
    • Lateral Meristems
    • Intercalary Meristems
  • Tissues Produced by Meristems
    • Simple Tissues
    • Complex Tissues