2013 AP Biology Exam/ Format Review Mr. McLeod AP Biology
2010 AP Biology Exam Location, Date and Time • Date: Monday May 13th • Location: LSSU Library Room 253 • Time: Exam begins at 8:00am (be there by 7:50 am to register….cannot enter library before 7:50) • EAT BREAKFAST!!!!!!!!!
What to Bring to the Exam • Several sharpened #2 Pencils • Several Black or Blue ink pens (not markers!!) • A watch of some kind (wrist or stopwatch) • No electronic devices of any kind are allowed at the exam (no cells, laptops etc.) • Calculators will be provided
General Format of the Exam • Multiple Choice Section: - 63 questions - each question has 4 answers - must be completed in 80 minutes
Format of Exam II • Grid-In/Free Response section * 10 Minute Reading Session * 6-8 Grid in/short answer * 2 long response questions * must be completed in 90 minutes
Format of the Exam III *Purpose of reading time is to allow students time to organize info: - no resources may be used - students may write in booklet - nothing in booklet will be seen by reader (I will get them back to read)
AP Bio Content: 4 Big Ideas • Big Idea 1: Evolution (The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life • Big Idea 2: Biological Systems (Biological systems use free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, reproduce and to maintain homeostasis)
AP Exam Content II • Big Idea 3: Passing Heritable Information for Continuity of Life (Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes) • Big Idea 4: Interaction of Biological Systems with Biotic/Abiotic Factors (Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties
Exam Breakdown by Topic • I. Molecules and Cells (25%) • A. Chemistry of Life (7%) • Water • Organic molecules in organisms • Free energy changes • Enzymes • B. Cells (10%) • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Membranes • Subcellular organization • Cell cycle and its regulation • C. Cellular Energetics (8%) • Coupled reactions • Fermentation and cellular respiration • Photosynthesis
AP Exam Content II • II. Heredity and Evolution (25%) • A. Heredity (8%) • Meiosis and gametogenesis • Eukaryotic chromosomes • Inheritance patterns • B. Molecular Genetics (9%) • RNA and DNA structure and function • Gene regulation • Mutation • Viral structure and replication • Nucleic acid technology and applications • C. Evolutionary Biology (8%) • Early evolution of life • Evidence for evolution • Mechanisms of evolution
Exam Content III • III. Organisms and Populations (50%) • A. Diversity of Organisms (8%) • Evolutionary patterns • Survey of the diversity of life • Phylogenetic classification • Evolutionary relationships • B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%) • Reproduction, growth, and development • Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations • Response to the environment • C. Ecology (10%) • Population dynamics • Communities and ecosystems • Global issues
How the Exam is Graded • Multiple Choice: 60% of the points (90 composite points out of 150) • Grid-In/Free Response: 40% of the points (60 composite points out of 150)
Kinds of Multiple Choice Questions • Traditional multiple-choice: - about half will be traditional - there are no ‘all of the above’ or ‘none of the above’ questions - 4 answers that all make some kind of sense (no outliers)
Multiple Choice Example: • From the 2002 exam: - The function of which of the following organelles directly requires oxygen? a. Ribosome b. Mitochondrion c. Nucleus d. Golgi apparatus
Strategies for Answering Multiple Choice Questions • NO LONGER a Guessing Penalty • Answer Tier 1 Questions First • Answer Tier 2 Questions Next • Save Tier 3 Questions for last • Answer ALL Multiple Choice Questions (no penalty!!)
Short Response Section: • ‘Grid-In/Cluster’ questions - Situation set-up followed by set of short answer/multiple choice questions
Lab Based Multiple Choice: • Students are expected to analyze data, a graph or a reading • There are usually 2-5 questions per lab set
ADVICE FOR ANSWERING LONG RESPONSE QUESTIONS • Read each question carefully 2 times for understanding • Be sure to answer all parts of the question asked • Answer ONLY the question asked • If you are given a choice of 2 topics within a question….choose ONLY 2 • Pay close attention to the verbs used in the directions (ie. Describe, explain, compare, contrast, give evidence for, graph etc.)
Advice For FRQ II • Be sure to follow the instructions AS STATED. • Brainstorm (notes/outline etc.)about the topic during your pre-writing time • Brainstorm in the answer booklet..the reader will not see it • No points scored for brainstorming • Write in essay format. Outlines and diagrams are not essays so will not get any credit BY THEMSELVES. • Properly labeled diagrams will earn points but only if you refer to them in your essay
Advice for FRQ III • Don’t get cute…no poems or stories…get right to the point • Define your terms. Say something about each term you use. • If you can’t think of a specific term take a stab at it. • If you can’t think of a concept then describe it • Underline important terms to call attention to them • Answer the parts of the question in the order called for and label them with a, b, c etc.
Advice For FRQ IV • Skipping around within a question will confuse the reader and cause them to overlook content • Answer the question thoroughly. No detail is too small if it is relevant • Examples are always appropriate • BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE OBVIOUS…most points are earned for the BASICS • Understand that the exam is written to be hard….the average will be about 50% correct. • It is very likely you will NOT KNOW EVERYTHING….so relax and write thorough answers
Advice for FRQ V • Don’t panic if you are unfamiliar with a question; be calm and think …you probably know something about the topic • Remember…no points are subtracted for incorrect information • No points are awarded for contradictory statements • Don’t worry about spelling/grammar • Graders prefer that you NOT write introductory statements/conclusions • Just answer the question • Write as neatly as possible and scratch out errors neatly
Kinds of Free Response Questions • Sample from the ’04 exam: *Meiosis reduces the chromosome number and rearranges genetic info 1. Explain how the reduction and rearrangements are accomplished 2. Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. ID one such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with that disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. 3. Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the traditional meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the off spring with those of the parents.
Kinds of Free Response Questions II • Traditional single topic free response questions. Example from the 01 exam: - Darwin proposed that evolution by natural selection was the basis for differences that he saw in similar organisms as he traveled and collected specimens. 1. Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as presented by Darwin - Each of the following relates to an aspect of evolution by natural selection. Explain three of the following: 1. Convergent evolution 2. Natural selection and the formation of insect resistant insects or antiboitic resistant bacteria 3. Speciation and isolation 4. Natural selection and behavior such as kinesis, fixed-action pattern, dominance heirarchy etc. 5. Natural selection and heterozygote advantage
Kinds of Free Response Questions III • Thematic free-response questions. Example from the ’03 exam: Regulatory (control)mechanisms in organisms are necessary for survival. Choose 3 of the following examples and explain how each is regulated: 1. Flowering in plants 2. Water balance in plants 3. Water balance in terrestrial vertebrates 4. Body temp in terrestrial vertebrates
Free Response Guidelines **Experimental Design Free Response - clearly state a hypothesis - set up a control and indicate the purpose of the control - ID the dependent and independent variables - ID the variables that will be held constant - Indicate how the variable that will be manipulated
Experimental Design IV • Hypothesis: predicted outcome for the experiment (educated guess) - based on past experience or any research done prior to experiment - in the “if-then” format ie.) if we increase the amount of sunlight reaching a green plant then its height will increase as well.
Experimental Design Components • Independent variable: variable that is purposely changed in an experiment (wd) • Dependent Variable: variable that changes as a result of the independent variable (ft) ie.) **Change the design of a paper airplane wing then measure the time it stays in the air
Experimental Design II • Control: reference level of the independent variable - will be used for comparison purposes ie.) if temp were used as an independent variable then room temp might be used as a control.
Experimental Design III • Number of Trials - the more trials you have the more reliable the results - average the results together
Guidelines for Answering Free Response Questions: Graphing • Guidelines for Graphing - label the axes correctly (independent on the x and dependent on the y - include the units on the axes (usually in parentheses following descriptor) - make sure the scale increments are correct - title the graph - if the instruction is to plot points then no line is necessary - if a line is drawn don’t extend it outside plotted points - if multiple lines—label each line clearly
Experimental Design V • Constants: factors that could be changed but should be held constant ie.) the water temperature in the osmosis experiment (room temp) using distilled water in the osmosis experiment
Variable Answers • Independent is the time of the year • Dependent is the amount of rainfall ie.) there is less rainfall because it’s July not July because there is less rainfall
More Variable Examples • Tree height v. time (over several years) • Speed a car is going vs. distance it takes to stop • Cost of house vs. number of rooms in the house
Kinds of Free Response Questions IV • Lab-based free response questions. Example from the ’02 exam: - a controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on the photosynthetic rate of incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with DPIP and electron acceptor that changes color from blue to clear when it is reduced. Each sample was placed individually in a spec 20 and the % transmittance was recorded. The three samples were prepared as follows: Sample 1: chloroplast suspension and DPIP Sample 2: chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment and DPIP Sample 3: Chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIP
Lab Based Questions con’t (there was a table showing %T for each of the 3 samples at 5 minute intervals for 20 minutes) • On the axes provided construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples • ID and explain the control or controls for this experiment • The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons produced in the 3 samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and why the 3 samples gave different transmittance results