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Fluorescence based self-encoding micro-bead sensor arrays. Analytical Chemistry Literature Seminar Louisiana State University 12 October 2009 Joyce W. Kamande. Overview. Importance of Vapor Analysis Concept of Artificial nose Comparison with other techniques Objective

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Fluorescence based self encoding micro bead sensor arrays

Fluorescence based self-encoding micro-bead sensor arrays

Analytical Chemistry Literature Seminar

Louisiana State University

12 October 2009

Joyce W. Kamande


Overview
Overview

  • Importance of Vapor Analysis

  • Concept of Artificial nose

  • Comparison with other techniques

  • Objective

  • Design and field implementation of a portable fluorescence based sensor

  • Spectrally resolved sensor imaging

  • Conclusion

  • Critique

  • Acknowledgements

  • Questions


Importance of vapor analysis
Importanceof Vapor Analysis

  • Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

    • Hazards: Health –liver, kidney, respiratory

    • Environmental Pollution: Ozone, BTX gases etc.

  • Fragrances from flowers and perfumes

  • Aromas from food and beverage

  • Explosives –volatile nitro aromatic compounds

http://www.texaninspection.com/graphics/pic_voc1.jpg


Chemical vapor sensing techniques
Chemical Vapor Sensing Techniques

  • Traditional Analytical Methods

    • GC-Olfactometry

    • GC-MS (mass spectroscopy)

    • IMS ( ion mobilty spectroscopy)

    • IR ( Infrared spectroscopy)

  • Biological methods

    • Canines (dogs)

    • Human sensory panels

  • Biomimetic methods

    • Electronic noses

http://www.ptonline.com/mag_images/200703fa2c.jpg

http://www.securityguarddog.co.uk/Images/security_dog/guarding_dog.jpg

http://web.1.c2.audiovideoweb.com/1c2web3536/iSmell_LG.jpg


Biomimetics
Biomimetics

Biologically inspired technologies

  • Highly fuel efficient car

  • Electronic tongues which imitate the tongue and used for liquid sensing analysis which use potentiometric and voltametrics measure pH.

  • Electronic noses imitate the human noses for gas sensing analysis

http://drvino.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/electronictongue.jpg

http://specieslist.com/images/external/Mini4L.jpg


Electronic nose concept
‘Electronic Nose Concept’

Orbitofrontal cortex

Thalamus

BIOLOGICAL NOSE

Olfactorybulb

Olfactory receptor cells

Olfactory epithelium

Nasal passage

Sensor elements &

Data acquisition system

ELECTRONIC NOSE

Pattern recognition algorithm

Vapor delivery system

http://www.electronichealing.co.uk/resources/Image/olfactory_system.jpg


About the author
About the Author

  • Robinson Professor of Chemistry at Tufts University

  • Founder and Director of Illumina Inc founded in 1988 to commercialize bead arrays created in the Walt lab

  • Published over 300 papers

  • Well renown for pioneering work in optical bead arrays and has applied this concept to DNA and Protein Analysis

    .

Prof David R. Walt

http://www.vanderbilt.edu/vicb/Images/Walt.jpg


Objective
Objective

  • Discuss latest developments in fluorescence based micro bead sensor arrays for vapor detection.


Nile red coating of functionalized silica microbeads
Nile Red Coating of Functionalized Silica Microbeads

Non polar

Polar

SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

C4

CN

NH2

OH

Nile Red/toluene

1mg/ml

Nile Red/toluene

1mg/ml

Nile Red/toluene

1mg/ml

Nile Red/toluene

1mg/ml

SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

C4

CN

NH2

OH


Solvatochromic effect of nile red
Solvatochromic effect of Nile Red

CN

OH

NH2

C4

Albert, K.:and David R.Walt Anal. Chem. 2000,72,1947-1955


Formation of microwells in optical fibre bundles
Formation of Microwells in Optical Fibre bundles

Bundle of single core fibres

Etch in mixture of HF and NH4F

c

Microwells formed

watblog.com

Epstein,J,R.;Walt,D.R.;Chem.Soc.Rev.,2003,32,203-204


Micro wells fabrication from optical fibers
Micro-wells fabrication from optical fibers

Nile red coated

functionalized silica

Microbeads (NRFSMB)

Optical fibre bundle

with microwells

Optical fibre bundle

packed with NRFSMB

Epstein,J,R.;Walt,D.R.;Chem.Soc.Rev.,2003,32,203-204


Instrumental set up
Instrumental Set Up

Pattern recognition system

Albert K,J et al.;, Environ. Sci. Technol.2001,35 3193-3200

Epstein,J,R.;Walt,D.R.;Chem.Soc.Rev.,2003,32,203-204


Imaging of the fiber optic arrays
Imaging of the Fiber Optic Arrays

Sensor type a

Vapor pulse

Normalizedintensity

Sensor type c

Sensor type b

Time (s)

Normalized intensity

Normalizedintensity

Time (s)

Time (s)

Aernecke et al. Sensors and Actuators B: Article in press


A

B

C

Mixture

Albert K,J et al.;, Environ. Sci. Technol.2001,35 3193-3200

Dickinson, T.A et al. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 2192-2198


Design implementation and field testing of a portable fluorescence based vapor sensor
Design Implementation, and Field Testing of a Portable Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Matthew J. Aernecke, Jian Guo, Sameer Sonkusale, and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009,81,5281-5290


Portable fluorescence based vapor system
Portable Fluorescence-Based Vapor System Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

1

2

3

4

Mathew J. Aernecke, Jian Guo, Sameer Sonkusale, and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009,81,5281-5290


Fabrication microbead array
Fabrication Microbead Array Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

  • Sensor type 1 ( Alltech)

  • Sensor type 2 ( Chirex)

  • Sensor type 3 (SCX)

Mathew J. Aernecke, Jian Guo, Sameer Sonkusale, and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009,81,5281-5290


Experimental procedure
Experimental Procedure Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Air

Mathew J. Aernecke, Jian Guo, Sameer Sonkusale, and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009,81,5281-5290


Individual vs block segmentation
Individual vs Block Segmentation Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

1

Intensity

0

Time

-1

1

Intensity

0

Run1

Run5

Time

Run12

-1

Run15

Mathew J. Aernecke, Jian Guo, Sameer Sonkusale, and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009,81,5281-5290


Experimental procedure1
Experimental Procedure Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Keith J.Albert and David R.Walt Anal. Chem. 2000,72,1947-1955


Temporally resolved flourescence spectroscopy of a microarray based vapor sensing system
Temporally Resolved Fluorescence- Based Vapor SensorFlourescence Spectroscopy of a Microarray-Based Vapor Sensing System.

Mathew J. Aernecke. and David R. Walt

Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Spectrally resolved sensor imaging srsi
Spectrally Resolved Sensor Imaging (SRSI) Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Transmission grating

First order

zero order

First order

Fluorescence intensity

Fluorescence intensity

Wavelength

time

time

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Spectrally resolved sensor imaging srsi array fabrication
Spectrally Resolved Sensor Imaging(SRSI) Fluorescence- Based Vapor SensorArray Fabrication

Add sensors

Glass

Cr Sputter

RIE Glass wafer

Photoresist

Dissolve the resist

Expose to UV light

Cr etch

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Instrumental setup
Instrumental Setup Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Instrumental set up1

480 nm Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Excitation Light

10x objective with grating

Vapor

Delivery

550 nm Long Pass

Emission Filter

Sensicam

CCD

Sensor Array

Calibration LEDs

Instrumental Set Up

Mathew J. Aernecke- Correspondence with author


Microbead mapping on array
Microbead Mapping on Array Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

Luna C8

Luna CN

Luna OH

Bulk

Single sensor

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769

710


Time and wavelength resolved response from a single luna c 8 sensor to ethanol
Time and Wavelength Resolved Response from a Single Luna C Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor8 Sensor to Ethanol

Ethanol

  • Exposure time 1 s

  • Bathochromic shift of 23 nm

  • Increase in intensity

  • Response time 10 s

Air

Raw fluorescence intensity

Air

Raw fluorescence intensity

Time

wavelength

wavelength

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Classification of Accuracies Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensorvs Wavelength

Classification Accuracy

Number of Wavelengths

Mathew J. Aernecke and David R. Walt Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 5762-5769


Conclusions
Conclusions Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

  • Signal to noise enhancement through the measured response of thousand of beads

  • Portability-system captures all the essential elements of the larger laboratory based system.

  • Increase in dimensionality using the SRSI improves the classification system from 61.9% to 85.7%

  • SRSI is able to capture dynamic changes of a flourescence response from a single bead ( 10 s).

  • System can be used to analyze petroleum distillates and Volatile Organic compounds


Critiques
Critiques Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

The Luna C8 microbead sensor underwent photobleaching.

Vapors with similar compositions could not clearly be distinguished by the pattern recognition system.

Quantitative studies were not mentioned however given the saturated vapor pressures of the distillate the detection limits are estimated to lie between mid ppm to low ppm


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Fluorescence- Based Vapor Sensor

  • Professor Soper

  • Soper Research Group

  • Audience


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