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serenity prayer
Serenity Prayer

God grant me the serenity To accept the things I cannot change; Courage to change the things I can; And wisdom to know the difference. Living one day at a time; Enjoying one moment at a time; Accepting hardships as the pathway to peace; Taking, as He did, this sinful world As it is, not as I would have it; Trusting that He will make all things right If I surrender to His Will; That I may be reasonably happy in this life And supremely happy with Him Forever in the next. Amen.

announcements
Announcements
  • March for Life
    • Austin this Sat (be here @ 9:30) sign up with me!
  • HW: Read Part II
    • Make notes from your reading
  • Upcoming…
    • Next Exam (Chapter 11) Jan 31st (Mon)
    • Faith/Art Project –instructions this Fri.
    • Catholic Schools Week (Jan 31st – Feb 4th)
      • Class Mass (Thurs Feb 3rd)
      • Grandparents Mass (Wed Feb 2nd)
chapter 11

Chapter 11

A Century of Suffering, Plague, War, and Schism

context
Context
  • Before the fourteenth c.
    • Kings submitted themselves to the Church’s authority
    • Growing internal/external forces led to the independence of the State
pope st celestine v
Pope St. Celestine V
  • Benedictine monk
  • Poor beggar
  • Wore a chain of iron
  • Fasted every day (but Sunday)
  • Reluctant to take papal office
  • Lacked training, education, patience
  • Resigned as pope after only one year
pope boniface viii
Pope Boniface VIII
  • Annulled official acts of Pope Celestine
    • Not dealing with Faith and morals
  • Confined Pope Celestine to prevent a schism
pope boniface viii1
Pope Boniface VIII
  • Lacked diplomacy
  • Used papacy to try and force secular rulers under his temporal authority
  • Attempted to gain the attention of the kings with pageantry
  • Marched in parade with two swords (temporal/papal)
king philip the fair
King Philip the Fair
  • Did not admire the Church
  • Goal was to extend the boundaries of France
  • Taxed the Church/confiscated Church lands to fund his wars
  • Neglected the fact that the Church was pardoned from taxation
pope boniface viii s response
Pope Boniface VIII’s Response

Clericis laicos :

… and if they shall-pay, or if the aforesaid persons shall receive, they shall be, by the act itself, under sentence of excommunication. From the aforesaid sentences of excommunication and interdict. moreover, noone shall be able to be absolved, except in the throes of death, without the authority and special permission of the apostolic chair; since it is our intention by no means to pass over with dissimulation so horrid an abuse of the secular powers.

king philip s response
King Philip’s Response
  • In a move to gain authority over the Church in France, Philip had the pope arrested
pope boniface viii s reaction
Pope Boniface VIII’S Reaction

Unum Sanctum:

However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. For since the Apostle said: 'There is no power except from God and the things that are, are ordained of God' [Rom 13:1-2], but they would not be ordained if one sword were not subordinated to the other and if the inferior one, as it were, were not led upwards by the other.

  • No one can be “saved” unless under the authority of the pope
king phillip s reaction
King Phillip’s Reaction
  • Called own council to condemn the pope
    • Pope Boniface
      • Charged with idolatry and magic
      • Tortured and humiliated by French authorities
context of the avignon papacy
Context of the Avignon Papacy
  • After death of Boniface Italy was in turmoil
  • Italian families ruled Rome
  • Italian independent states began to form
  • Bl. Benedict XI succeeded the papal throne (died eight months later)
the avignon papacy
The Avignon Papacy
  • King Phillip persuaded the Papal commission to appoint his childhood friend, Bertrand de Got (Clement V)
  • To avoid the chaos of Rome
    • Clement established his papacy in the city of Avignon
the avignon papacy1
The Avignon Papacy
  • King Philip
    • Tried to get Clement to declare Boniface a heretic and revoke all his anti-regal acts
      • Clement refused, but allowed an inquisition into the Knights Templar
gallicanism
Gallicanism
  • Favored restraint of the pope’s authority in favor of the bishops and the temporal ruler
  • Did not contest the primacy of the pope
  • Believed to be more aligned with Scripture regarding primacy of the pope
  • Reaction to ultramontane (authority of the pope over all temporal rulers)
gallicanism1
Gallicanism
  • The King had a say in Ecclesiastical affairs
  • The French Roman Catholic Clergy
    • Favored less papal power and the achievement of each nation of individual autonomy
most damaging attack of gallicanism
Most Damaging Attack of Gallicanism
  • Marsiglio of Padua
  • Defensor Pacis:
    • Declared that the faithful were the true authority of the Church
      • “… behold, the distribution of the temporal offerings of the church was made by the apostles in general, not by Peter alone”
famine and black death
Famine and Black Death
  • Famine hit for first time in 200 years
  • Prosperity and increase in life expectancy led to a population boom
  • Large population/bad weather led to shortage of food
famine and black death1
Famine and Black Death
  • Lack of food = malnutrition
  • Malnutrition = susceptibility to disease
  • Those who survived starvation were killed by the Black Plague
  • Black Plague = greatest catastrophe to hit Western Europe
the jews are blamed for the black plague
The Jews are Blamed for the Black Plague

On Saturday - that was St. Valentine's Day-they burnt the Jews on a wooden platform in their cemetery. There were about two thousand people of them. Those who wanted to baptize themselves were spared. [Some say that about a thousand accepted baptism.] Many small children were taken out of the fire and baptized against the will of their fathers and mothers….

church s role during the black plague
Church’s Role During the Black Plague
  • Priests/bishops stayed behind to aide the sick
  • Monastic communities treated the ill as Christ would have

(Mark 5:21-43)

context1
Context
  • Peace and Truce of God: Common unity of Faith shared between European kings who did not share a common culture
  • Truce did not last
context2
Context
  • France/England fought over small discontents
  • English did not accept the French crown (despite owning French lands)
the hundred years war
The Hundred Years War
  • Short battles
  • Interrupted by periods of peace
  • English trying to gain complete power in France
  • Young, incompetent, mad kings left France in control of English
st joan of arc
St. Joan of Arc

“In the world's history

she stands alone -- quite alone.”

~Mark Twain

st joan of arc1
St. Joan of Arc
  • Jan 6th 1412
  • Born a peasant
  • Had visions of the Archangel, St. Margaret and St. Catherine of Alexandria (13 yrs old)
  • Instructed to tell Charles VII that she would make possible his coronation
st joan of arc2
St. Joan of Arc
  • Dressed as a man
  • Convinced king of sincerity
  • May 1429 –led army to Orleans
  • Successfully recaptured Orleans and other cities
  • Win on battlefield led to the crowning of Charles VII
st joan of arc3
St. Joan of Arc
  • Unsuccessful at furthering French cause
  • Kings grew tired/apathetic
  • Captured by English/French did not barter for her life
  • Placed on trial for heresy and witchcraft
why did the english place st joan on trial
Why did the English Place St. Joan on Trial?
  • To discredit King Charles VII as a false king
  • Used Church authority, which favored the English, to obtain this goal
what was st joan accused of
What was St. Joan Accused of?
  • Refusal to submit herself to the Church in matters of the Faith
  • Insistence on her ability to interpret her own revelation
  • Transgressing her gender
the trial of st joan of arc
The Trial of St. Joan of Arc

X

You have said that you are well assured that God loves certain others living more than yourself, and that you know this by revelation from these saints, who speak in the French language; and not in English, because they are not of their party. And that, ever since you learned that the voices were on your king's side, you have not loved the Burgundians.

As for this Article, the clerks say that this is a rash presumption and assertion, blasphemy against the saints, and transgression of God's commandment to love one's neighbour.

the trial of st joan of arc1
The Trial of St. Joan of Arc
  • Given one last chance to admit guilt/to save herself
  • She refused to do so
  • Burned alive on the stake
  • Freed from her sentence after Pope Callistus re-examined her trial (25 yrs later)
  • Beatified in 1909
st catherine of sienna
St. Catherine of Sienna

“Charity is the sweet and holy bond which links the soul with its Creator: it binds God with man and man with God.”

~St. Catherine of Sienna

st catherine of sienna1
St. Catherine of Sienna
  • Pledged virginity to Christ
  • Mother wanted her to marry
  • Father allowed her to do as she pleased
  • Devoted life to prayer, fasting
  • Only spoke to her confessor
  • Only left home to go to Church
st catherine of sienna2
St. Catherine of Sienna

“Spiritual espousal” or “Mystical marriage”

  • Christ tells the soul that He takes it for his bride.
  • Apparition accompanied by a ceremony in which the Blessed Mother, saints, and angels are present.
  • The soul receives a sudden surge of charity and increased familiarity with God.
st catherine of sienna3
St. Catherine of Sienna
  • Had many visions
  • Called to enter the public life and “heal the wounds of the Church”
  • Sent letters out to Kings, Queens, laity
  • Sent letter to Pope Gregory to return to Rome
letter to pope gregory xi
Letter to Pope Gregory XI

“… [the] Holy Church should return to her first condition, poor, humble, and meek as she was in that holy time when men took note of nothing but the honor of God and the salvation of souls, caring for spiritual things and not for temporal. For ever since she has aimed more at temporal than at spiritual, things have gone from bad to worse.”

the western schism
The Western Schism
  • Italians wanted the papacy back
  • Mob stormed Vatican demanding Italian pope
  • Pope Urban VI elected “freely and unanimously”
the western schism pope urban vi
The Western Schism: Pope Urban VI
  • Aggressive and inflexible
  • Declared no return to Avignon
  • Declared war on every moral abuse
  • Criticized the materialistic lifestyle of the cardinals.
  • Urged by St. Catherine to turn away from “violent actions”
the western schism1
The Western Schism
  • French cardinals elected an “antipope”, (Clement VII) in Avignon
  • Out of fear
conciliarism
Conciliarism
  • Supported the power of a council to appoint a candidate for the papacy
  • Placed the authority of an council over the pope.
  • Worked to end the schism by replacing popes with another antipope
the council of constance
The Council of Constance
  • Solidified the authority of the pope over a general council.
  • Placed three criteria that must be maintained for a council to be valid:

1. The council must be called by the pope

2. The council must be presided over by the pope or his legate

3. The council’s dogmatic decrees are considered valid only if they are accepted and approved by the pope