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Indian Economy and Agriculture. Agriculture remains to be the livelihood of more that 60% of Population Contributes about 16% of GDP Main source of foodgrains Provider of raw materials for many industries. Agriculture needs support. Agriculture is less remunerative

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Indian economy and agriculture

Indian Economy and Agriculture

Agriculture remains to be the livelihood of more that 60% of Population

Contributes about 16% of GDP

Main source of foodgrains

Provider of raw materials for many industries

Agriculture needs support
Agriculture needs support

  • Agriculture is less remunerative

  • Farm produces meet the basic needs

  • Hence their prices need to be kept low

  • All countries including Developed countries provide support to farm producers to remain in agriculture

Agriculture subsidy worldwide
Agriculture Subsidy worldwide

  • in the OECD(Orgn for Econ Co-op & Devtt.) gives agricultural support to farm producers

  • OECD members (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic,

  • Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea,

  • Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.

  • China, Russia and other communist country provides huge subsidy to the farmers

Extent of farm subsidy in oecd
Extent of Farm subsidy in OECD

  • In 2009, support to producers in OECD countries was estimated at USD 253 billion or 22% of aggregate gross farm receipts ,

  • The level of

  • producer support (expressed as % of producer revenues) in OECD countries in 2007-09

  • ranged widely: 1% in New Zealand, 4% in Australia, 9% in the United States, 12% in Mexico, 17% in Canada, 23% in the European Union, 34% in Turkey, 47% in Japan, 52% in Korea, 53% in Iceland, 58% in Switzerland and 61% in Norway.

  • Queen Elizabeth received more than £500,000 in 2010

Farm subsidy in india
Farm Subsidy in India

  • Farmers do not get subsidy directly

  • Farmers are not kept waiting till sale of their produce

  • Indirect subsidy is given in the form of low priced inputs like seeds, fertilizers, irrigation-water, low cost power etc.

  • Free Agricultural information

  • Fertilizer -the major element of cost

Agriculture and fertilizers

Agriculture and Fertilizers

Needed for increased farm production to feed the fast growing population

Plants need nutrients to grow

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen - plentiful supply in- air and water

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium - macronutrients- chem.fertilizers

Secondary nutrients - Sulphur, calcium, and magnesium

Micronutrients -Boron, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc -

Types of fertilizers manufacturers
Types of Fertilizers/Manufacturers

Urea- major source of Nitrogen

DAP- Nitrogen and Phosphorus

SSP- Phosphorus and Sulphur

Complex of N, P and K


Scarcity of raw material
Scarcity of raw material

  • Nitrogen(Urea)- Hydro carbon-NG, Naphtha, FO, LSHS ( mostly import dependent)

  • Phosphorus – Rock Phosphate ( mostly import dependent)

  • Potash- Totally import dependent

Subsidized fertilizers
Subsidized Fertilizers

  • India remained to be dependent on imported fertilizers

  • Government considered fertilizer as a core sector and started PSUs in this sector

  • To ensure supplies at affordable prices, directed the fertilizer manufacturers/importes to sell them at uniform notified low price

  • The excess of cost over selling price is given to the sellers as subsidy

Regulatory mechanism
Regulatory Mechanism

  • To ensure availability of fertilizers at affordable prices

  • Declared fertilizer as an essential commodity under EC Act, 1955

  • First Fertilizers Control Order-e.f. 1957

  • To Fix uniform selling price of Fertilizers

  • Manufacturers/importers to sell them at govt notified uniform price

Pooled pricing
Pooled Pricing

  • Central Pool was to fix uniform price of a fertilizer for consumers

  • Uniform price was fixed based on pooled cost of both domestic and imports

  • Central pool operated on a no- profit- no-loss basis

  • This pool system continued till 1966

  • From 1972, ECA allocation started

Retention pricing scheme
Retention Pricing Scheme

  • Set up of Sh S S Marathe Committee,1976

  • To recommend a pricing policy

  • That wound ensure a fair return on invstt.

  • Retention Pricing Policy introduced by Resolution dated 1.11.1977

  • Covered Urea, AS and CAN

Subsidy on fertilisers

  • From 1 Nov.1977 to 31 March 2003

    • Retention Price Scheme (RPS) based on unit-wise cost plus approach

  • From 1 April 2003

    • New Pricing Scheme (NPS) based on Group Concession Rates

  • Subsidy disbursed through Fertiliser manufacturers

  • Retention price scheme rps
    Retention Price Scheme (RPS)

    • Retention Price Scheme (RPS) for fertilizer Industry remained in force till 31.3.2003.

    • Under RPS, retention prices for all urea producing units worked on three year pricing period basis, covering cost of production and 12% post tax return on capital employed.

    • The difference between the RPS and the maximum selling price of urea paid as subsidy

    • Under RPS, consumption norms were revised, capacities were re-assessed from 1.4.2000,vintage allowances on capacity and consumption norms was withdrawn and capacity utilization norm was revised to 95%/90% for gas based and Naphtha/FO based units respectively w.e.f. 1.4.2002.

    Components of retention price
    Components of Retention Price

    Variable Cost

    Conversion Cost


    Capital Related Charges

    Selling Expenses

    Details of elements of cost 1
    Details of Elements of Cost - 1

    Variable Cost – Direct input materials based on the preset consumption norms





    Purchased Power



    Details of elements of cost 2
    Details of Elements of Cost - 2

    Conversion Cost – (Fixed cost for a pricing period)

    Salaries & Wages


    Chemical & Consumables

    Repairs & Maintenance

    Non-plant Power & Water

    Overheads (Factory, Admn., Social)


    Miscellaneous Income

    Details of elements of cost
    Details of elements of Cost

    Depreciation & Capital Related Charges

    Depreciation (15 years life – 6.33% depreciation)

    Interest on long term & short term loan

    12% post tax return on net worth ( Equity capital & Reserves)

    CRC is provided on the normative capital employed i.e. Net fixed Assets plus Normative Working Capital

    Details of elements of cost1
    Details of elements of Cost

    Selling Expenses

    Actual selling expenses subject to a ceiling of Rs.138/MT

    Indian economy and agriculture

    Retention Price Components

    Retention Price Rs/MT={(CRC+Conversion Cost)/Assessed Production}+Variable Cost+Selling Expenses

    Variable Cost (Quarterly/Annual)

    Conversion Cost (Annually)

    Capital Related Charges (Beginning of Pricing Period)

    • Salaries and Wages - Actual

    • Contract Labours- Actual

    • Repairs and Maintenance -

    • Moderated Actual

    • Catalyst - Normative Life with actual rates

    • Chemicals and Consumables - Normative

    • Overheads - Actuals in the costed year

    • Selling Expenses - Combination of Actual and Normative with ceiling

    • Cost of Feedstock

    • Consumption - Normative

    • Rate - Actual

    • Cost of Utilities

    • Consumption - Normative

    • Rate - Actual

    • Packing Cost

    • Consumption - Normative

    • Rate - Actual

    • Water

    • Depreciation - @ 6.33% on Straight Line Method

    • Interest - Actual weighted Average Rate

    • Return - 12% post tax grossed up to pretax



    Retention price


    Maximum Retail Price

    Rps to nps

    • During 1991, a Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) was appointed to review the existing RPS and suggest scope for reducing fertilizer prices.

    • High Powered Committee headed by Dr Hanumantha Rao was appointed in the year 1997 to recommend an alternative pricing mechanism. No decision was taken on the report.

    • Modified RPS was proposed for consideration

    • Expenditure Reforms Commission recommended Group based concession scheme for urea manufacturers

    • Government decided to implement Group based New Pricing Scheme with effect from 1.4.2003

    New pricing scheme nps
    New Pricing Scheme (NPS)

    • Group concession scheme under NPS introduced from 1.4.2003. All units have been classified into six groups based on vintage and the feedstock.

    • Stage-I for one year period from 1.4.2003 to 31.3.2004.

    • Stage-II for two years period from 1.4.2004 to 31.3.2006 extended upto 30.09.2006

    • Stage-III from 1.10.2006.

    • For each group, weighted average group price was worked out excluding the outliers (RPS more than +/- 20% of group average).

    • Concession rate is determined as lower of Unit’s own RP or Group Weighted Average.

    • Under NPS I and II, outliers above Group Weighted Average were given 50% as outlier benefit. Only MFL was given this benefit upto 30.09.2006.

    • Variable cost component is escalated on quarterly/yearly basis.

    Nps ii to nps iii

    • Costed Year 2002-03

    • Tightening of Energy Norms resulting into reduction in norms of 11 Units.

    • Tightening of Consumption norms of Water, Non Plant Water/Power.

    • Reimbursement of Taxes at actuals. Under NPS I and II, taxes like sales tax, service tax, cess on excise etc. on inputs were restricted at the level of 1.4.2002.

    • Saving has been allowed at weighted average of basic rates of actual inputs used while in NPS I and II, saving was allowed at basic rate of cheapest input used.

    • No outlier benefit even if Unit’s retention price is 20% above the Group Weighted Average.

    Benefits of introducing nps
    Benefits of Introducing NPS

    • NPS I/II

      • Increase in efficiency by tightening of norms .

      • Reduction in subsidy by application of Group Weighted Average.

      • Road map for decontrol. 50% of production was under Non-ECA.

      • Units were induced to increase energy efficiency further by allowing them to retain the reduction in energy norms to fund the related expenditure.

      • Units were allowed to retain sales proceeds of all the by products including surplus ammonia.

      • Units were given variable cost plus 35% of gain (IPP – Variable Cost) for production beyond 100% without any ceiling to encourage production from least cost units.

        NPS III

      • Increase in efficiency by further tightening of norms (10 Units).

      • Reduction in subsidy by application of Group Weighted Average.

      • 50% of production was under Non-ECA.

      • Road map drawn for conversion of non-gas based Units to gas.

    Incentivizing production beyond 100
    Incentivizing Production Beyond 100%

    To encourage Units to produce up to maximum of their abilities, following provisions have been made in NPS III,

    Production beyond 100% but up to 110%

    Units are given Variable cost plus 35% of gain ( IPP – VC) subject to concession rate for production beyond 100% but up to 110% of their re-assessed capacity.

    Production beyond 110%

    Units are given Concession Rate subject to IPP for production beyond 110% of their re-assessed capacity.

    Surplus ammonia
    Surplus Ammonia

    As per original provision of NPS III, energy for surplus ammonia was to be deducted at costliest feed/fuel. However, keeping in view the genuine difficulties faced by few Units, recently the provision has been modified by allowing actual mix of feed/fuel for surplus ammonia if the production of surplus ammonia is due to technical reasons. It has also been proposed to deduct 35% of difference between IPP of Ammonia and Variable Cost as share of Government of India.

    In case of production of Surplus Ammonia due to other reasons, non-APM mix has to be applied.

    Nbs for complex fertilizers
    NBS for Complex Fertilizers

    • Subsidy will be fixed for each nutrient (N,P&K) which is decided to be subsidised.

    • Subsidy on subsidised fertilizers will be determined on the basis of nutrient subsidy fixed by the Government for each nutrient and the nutrients contained within the fertilizer.

    • Since subsidy is fixed, there will be no MRPs.

    • Made Effecitive from 01.04.2010

    Advantages envisaged
    Advantages envisaged

    • promote balanced fertilization

    • promote availability of better fertilizer products

    • unleash competitive forces leading to efficiency of production

    • promote farm extension services with farmer as the central focus of the fertilizer companies

    • better nutrient uptake efficiency through better application techniques

    • overall increase in agriculture productivity leading to better returns to the farmers and long term food security for the country

    • Increased investments in the fertilizer sector

    Nbs fixation of per nutrient
    NBS- Fixation of per nutrient

    • Per nutrient subsidy will be notified by the Government before start of the each financial year

    • Per nutrient subsidy will be fixed on the basis of estimated consumption of nutrients, prevailing international prices of major fertilizers, total allocation of subsidy and the targeted farmgate price of major fertilizers

    • Per nutrient subsidy is proposed for N, P & K only. A separate subsidy per tonne of fertilisers will be provided for fertilizers carrying secondary and micro-nutrients, in addition to the primary nutrients

    • Since there will be no MRPs notified by the Government, no freight equalisation is proposed to be provided.

    Operational need of nbs
    Operational need of NBS

    • Transition from current product based subsidy regime to NBS will involve huge logistics requirements.

    • Implementation of NBS is proposed in three phases:

      • Phase – 1 : NBS at retail points

      • Phase – 2 : NBS directly to the farmers without quantitative restrictions

      • Phase – 3 : Direct cash transfers to farmers with quantitative restrictions based on land details and subsidy/ consumption norms

    Phase 1 nbs at retail points
    Phase – 1 : NBS at retail points

    • Fertilizers move at market prices till the last purchase point

    • Retailers to sell fertilizers net of subsidy to the farmers.

    • Subsidy to be claimed by Retailers in their bank accounts through the designated banks at the block level

    • Sale receipts and reconciliation of sales with total receipts of fertilizers to be submitted to bank for collateral.

    • Fertilizer movement and distribution to be monitored through FMS from plant / port to the last sale point

    Tentative flow chart

    Tentative Flow Chart

    Tentative Flow Chart

    Issue of Unique Num. IDs (UNIds)


    Fertilizers to Dealers at MP

    Fertilizer Companies

    Release FS


    Lead Bank of District




    Sale receipts & reconciliation of sales







    Of Subsidy

    Based on Sale

    Market prices – MP

    Fertilizer Subsidy – FS

    Subsidized Price – SP = (MP – FS)

    Central Bank

    Allocates funds

    towards FS

    • Note:

    • UNIds can be used with the bags for authentication of sale of fertilizers


    Nbs disbursement mechanism
    NBS - Disbursement Mechanism

    • Phase – 2 : NBS directly to the farmers

      • Farmers will get credit for purchase of fertilizers under the Kisan Credit Card (KCC). [ Cooperative members from PACS]

      • Farmer will use the credit for purchase of fertilizers at market price from the retailer.

      • Retailer will provide a receipt of the sale of fertilizers along with Unique Identification Code (UIC) of the retailer and Unique bag IDs to the farmers.

      • Farmers can get the subsidy equivalent to purchased quantities credited to their account from the banks.

      • Bank will be able to receive the subsidy claim from the nodal bank in the district based on the details of KCC, purchase receipts and UIC.

      • Till 100% coverage of farmers through KCC, farmers not having KCC can directly claim the applicable subsidy from the designated banks through deposit of bonafide purchase receipts in the banks

    Phase 3 nbs directly to the farmers with quantitative restrictions
    Phase – 3 : NBS directly to the farmers with quantitative restrictions

    • Based on data collected in Phase – 2 and consumption norms fixed by DAC, quantum eligibility for subsidized fertilizers will be fixed in each KCC

    • NBS will be directly credited to the KCC account of the farmers based on purchase receipts for eligible quantities of fertilizers

    • Farmers free to purchase fertilizers beyond eligible quantities from the open market. However, subsidy remains fixed based on eligible quantum

    Problems encountered
    Problems encountered restrictions

    • Prices of fertilizers under NBS increased manifold along with fixed subsidies

    • Fertilizers went beyond purchsing power of farmers

    • Increase in unsold stock

    • Govt. resorted to monitor prices with ref to related cost.

    • Cost Accountants role increased

    Direct subsidy to farmers
    Direct subsidy to farmers restrictions

    • Subsidy disbursement through fertilizer industry is in effect subsidy to the farmers the benefit of which is enjoyed by the country as a whole

    • Fertilizer units are just a medium for proper execution

    • Higher fertilizer subsidy is basically a transfer of Govt revenue to Oil and gas sector companies /monopolies/cartels

    • Gas pricing in USD is a damaging proposition resulting in higher subsidy

    Thank you
    Thank you restrictions