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Diseases Caused By Protein Damage. By: Abenezer Abraham. 3 Diseases. - Parkinson’s Disease -Lou Gehrig’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease. Parkinson’s Disease . Parkinson’s Disease . 2 Steps & 2 enzymes. 1 st Step and 1 st Enzyme. 1 st Step

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Presentation Transcript
3 diseases
3 Diseases
  • -Parkinson’s Disease
  • -Lou Gehrig’s Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
parkinson s disease1
Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2 Steps
  • &
  • 2 enzymes
1 st step and 1 st enzyme
1st Step and 1st Enzyme
  • 1st Step
  • -L-tyrosine + THFA +O2 + Fe2+ L-dopa + DHFA + H20 + Fe2+
  • Enzyme:
  • Tyrosine-3-Monooxygenase
2 nd step and 2 nd enzyme
2nd Step and 2nd Enzyme
  • 2nd Step
  • L-dopa + pyridoxalphosphateDopamine +pyridoxal phosphate + CO2
  • Enzyme:
  • DopaCarboxylase
tdp 43 location location location
TDP-43 (Location, Location,Location)
  • -Normally located in the Nucleus
  • -Involved in regulating DNA translation into RNA and transcription of RNA to proteins.
  • -However…
two hypotheses
Two Hypotheses
  • Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis
  • -Neuronal Cytoskeletal Degeneration Hypothesis
amyloid cascade hypothesis
Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis

-Abnormal processing of the amyloid precursor protein leads to a series of events that result in Alzheimer’s.

-Beta Amyloid Plaques

neuronal cytoskeletal degeneration hypothesis
Neuronal Cytoskeletal Degeneration Hypothesis
  • -Proposes that cytoskeletal problems are the main cause of Alzheimer’s.
  • -Tau Proteins
tau proteins
Tau Proteins
  • -Aid in regulating Microtubule construction
  • -Also interact with Actin filaments
  • -Hyperphosphorylation
beta amyloid plaques
Beta Amyloid Plaques
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage (APP)
  • -Involves 3 Enzymes
  • -Beta, Alpha, and Gamma Secretase enzymes
3 enzymes
3 Enzymes
  • -The Beta Secretase produces CT99
alpha secretase
Alpha Secretase
  • The Alpha Secretase produces CT83
gamma secretase
Gamma Secretase

The Gamma Secretase forms Beta Amyloid 40 (Major) and the Beta Amyloid 42 (minor)

*The Beta Amyloid 42 forms amyloid plaque

the problem
The Problem
  • -Mutations near the Beta and Gamma Secretasecleavage sites result in increased production of Beta Amyloid 42 which results in increased Amount of plaques surrounding the neuron
there s still work to be done
There’s Still Work to Be Done
  • -While there is much that is yet to be understood about the exact details of the damage done to this proteins, much research is still being done to ultimately prevent these diseases.