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AP Review

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AP Review

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  1. AP Review Chapters 40-43

  2. Fast Facts Tissues: groups of cells with a common structure and function - epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle Epithelial tissue: - covers the outside of the body and lines the organs within the body - cells are held together by tight junctions

  3. Fast Facts Connective tissue: - functions to bind and support other tissues - ex. loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood Nervous tissue: - senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another - nerve cells, or neurons, are specialized to transmit signals

  4. Fast Facts Muscle tissue: - composed of long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses - skeletal (striated) muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle

  5. Fast Facts Animals maintain homeostasis, or internal balance within their systems Negative feedback: a change in the variable being monitored triggers the control mechanism to counteract further change Positive feedback: a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse change

  6. Fast Facts Regulated change: some are cyclical such as in hormone levels in women while others are reactions to challenges of the body (like infections).

  7. Fast Facts The flow of energy into and out of an animal can be viewed as a “budget” - most of the energy taken in is used to produce ATP to power resting metabolism and temperature regulation - excess ATP can be used for biosynthesis

  8. Fast Facts The flow of energy into and out of an animal can be viewed as a “budget” - most of the energy taken in is used to produce ATP to power resting metabolism and temperature regulation - excess ATP can be used for biosynthesis

  9. Fast Facts The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing The stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion - the stomach secretes gastric juices and mixes them with food by a churning motion - also present in the gastric juices is pepsin, an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins

  10. Fast Facts The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption - the pancreas produces hydrolytic enzymes and an alkaline solution - the liver produces bile.

  11. Fast Facts Most absorption occurs in the small intestine - s.i. has a large surface area due to the folding of the lining into villi - each villus has many microscopic appendages called microvilli which increase the rate of absorption

  12. Fast Facts In insects blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system - no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid

  13. Fast Facts

  14. Fast Facts Blood consists of several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma - blood plasma is 90% water - in the plasma are red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets RBC, or erythrocytes, are the most common blood cells - main fcn. is to transport O2 - lack nuclei; leaves more space for hemoglobin

  15. Fast Facts Gas exchange: the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide - don’t confuse with (cellular) respiration Respiratory medium: source of oxygen - air and water Respiratory surface: part of an animal where gases are exchanged

  16. Fast Facts The arrangement of capillaries in a fish gill enhances gas exchange and reduces the energy cost of ventilation Countercurrent exchange: blood flows in opposite direction to the movement of water past the gills - as blood moves through the capillary, it becomes more and more loaded with oxygen. Simultaneously, it encounters water with even higher oxygen concentrations.

  17. Fast Facts Tracheal systems and lungs are respiratory adaptations of terrestrial animals Tracheal system: made up of air tubes that branch throughout the body Unlike the tracheal systems that branch throughout the insect’s body, the lungs are restricted to one location

  18. Sample Question Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates: respiratory digestive excretory nervous For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules (or ions). Be sure to relate structure to function in each example.

  19. Fast Facts The skin and mucous membranes provide first-line barriers to infection Phagocytic cells, inflammation, and antimicrobial proteins function early in infection Mechanisms depend mainly on phagocytosis: the ingestion of invading organisms by certain types of white cells

  20. Fast Facts

  21. Fast Facts Lymphocytes provide the specificity and diversity of the immune system Two main types: B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells) - recognize and respond to particular microbes and foreign molecules (antigen) - B cells secrete proteins (antibodies) to fight antigens

  22. Fast Facts Antigens interact with specific lymphocytes, inducing immune responses and immunological memory - clonal selection: the cloning of lymphocytes into effectorcells (short-lived) and memory cells (long-lived)

  23. Fast Facts The immune system exhibits the feature of self-tolerance - major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a series of glycoproteins that mark the body as “self” - MHC provides a biological fingerprint; found in studying skin graft rejection and acceptance

  24. Fast Facts In response to antigens, the immune system can mount a humoral response or a cell-mediated response Humoral immunity: attack free antigens - B cells form Plasma cells - plasma cells secrete antibodies for an antigen

  25. Fast Facts Cell-mediated immunity: T cells are active against viruses and bacteria that have infected cells - activated T cells become TH or TC; TH activate B cells that produce antibodies, TC destroy infected body cells

  26. Fast Facts

  27. Fact Facts Homeostasis: the ability of animals to regulate their internal environment - thermoregulation: maintaining internal temperature - osmoregulation: regulation of the gain and loss of water - excretion: removal of nitrogen-containing waste products

  28. Fact Facts An animal’s nitrogenous wastes are correlated with its phylogeny and habitat - Some animals will excrete ammonia directly, but many species will convert it to urea or uric acid

  29. Fact Facts The urinary system is made-up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra - the nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys - waste is filtered from the blood and collected as urine in each kidney

  30. Fact Facts The nephron has three functions: - glomerular filtration of water and solutes out of the blood - tubular reabsorption of water and molecules from the tubules back into the blood - tubular secretion of waste products into the distal tubule

  31. Fact Facts The nervous system and hormones regulate kidney function Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): hormone primarily responsible for producing urine and regulating water balance - an antidiuretic is any chemical that prevents excessive urine production

  32. Fact Facts Endocrine system - helps control chemical composition and volume - ensures successful growth and development - gamete production, fertilization, embryo development and nourishment, and delivery - regulates metabolism - regulates response to environmental changes (starvation, dehydration, temperature)

  33. Fact Facts Effects of hormones Synergistic effects: the effects of two or more hormones complement each other; response is “summation” of individual effects Antagonistic effects: the effect of one hormone opposes the other - ex. insulin lowers blood sugar while glucagon raises it

  34. Sample Questions Feedback mechanisms are used by organisms to maintain the steady-state physiological condition known as homeostasis. Choose three of the following and for each, explain how feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. • Blood glucose concentration • Calcium ion concentration • Body temperature • Osmolarity of the blood