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AP Review. Chapters 40-43. Fast Facts. Tissues : groups of cells with a common structure and function - epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle Epithelial tissue: - covers the outside of the body and lines the organs within the body - cells are held together by tight junctions.

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ap review

AP Review

Chapters 40-43

fast facts
Fast Facts

Tissues: groups of cells with a common structure and function

- epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle

Epithelial tissue:

- covers the outside of the body and lines the organs within the body

- cells are held together by tight junctions

fast facts1
Fast Facts

Connective tissue:

- functions to bind and support other tissues

- ex. loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood

Nervous tissue:

- senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another

- nerve cells, or neurons, are specialized to transmit signals

fast facts2
Fast Facts

Muscle tissue:

- composed of long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses

- skeletal (striated) muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle

fast facts3
Fast Facts

Animals maintain homeostasis, or internal balance within their systems

Negative feedback: a change in the variable being monitored triggers the control mechanism to counteract further change

Positive feedback: a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse change

fast facts4
Fast Facts

Regulated change: some are cyclical such as in hormone levels in women while others are reactions to challenges of the body (like infections).

fast facts5
Fast Facts

The flow of energy into and out of an animal can be viewed as a “budget”

- most of the energy taken in is used to produce ATP to power resting metabolism and temperature regulation

- excess ATP can be used for biosynthesis

fast facts6
Fast Facts

The flow of energy into and out of an animal can be viewed as a “budget”

- most of the energy taken in is used to produce ATP to power resting metabolism and temperature regulation

- excess ATP can be used for biosynthesis

fast facts7
Fast Facts

The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing

The stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion

- the stomach secretes gastric juices and mixes them with food by a churning motion

- also present in the gastric juices is pepsin, an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins

fast facts8
Fast Facts

The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption

- the pancreas produces hydrolytic enzymes and an alkaline solution

- the liver produces bile.

fast facts9
Fast Facts

Most absorption occurs in the small intestine

- s.i. has a large surface area due to the folding of the lining into villi

- each villus has many microscopic appendages called microvilli which increase the rate of absorption

fast facts10
Fast Facts

In insects blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system

- no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid

In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid

fast facts12
Fast Facts

Blood consists of several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma

- blood plasma is 90% water

- in the plasma are red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets

RBC, or erythrocytes, are the most common blood cells

- main fcn. is to transport O2

- lack nuclei; leaves more space for hemoglobin

fast facts13
Fast Facts

Gas exchange: the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide

- don’t confuse with (cellular) respiration

Respiratory medium: source of oxygen

- air and water

Respiratory surface: part of an animal where gases are exchanged

fast facts14
Fast Facts

The arrangement of capillaries in a fish gill enhances gas exchange and reduces the energy cost of ventilation

Countercurrent exchange: blood flows in opposite direction to the movement of water past the gills

- as blood moves through the capillary, it becomes more and more loaded with oxygen. Simultaneously, it encounters water with even higher oxygen concentrations.

fast facts15
Fast Facts

Tracheal systems and lungs are respiratory adaptations of terrestrial animals

Tracheal system: made up of air tubes that branch throughout the body

Unlike the tracheal systems that branch throughout the insect’s body, the lungs are restricted to one location

sample question
Sample Question

Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates: respiratory

digestive

excretory

nervous

For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules (or ions). Be sure to relate structure to function in each example.

fast facts16
Fast Facts

The skin and mucous membranes provide first-line barriers to infection

Phagocytic cells, inflammation, and antimicrobial proteins function early in infection

Mechanisms depend mainly on phagocytosis: the ingestion of invading organisms by certain types of white cells

fast facts18
Fast Facts

Lymphocytes provide the specificity and diversity of the immune system

Two main types: B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells)

- recognize and respond to particular microbes and foreign molecules (antigen)

- B cells secrete proteins (antibodies) to fight antigens

fast facts19
Fast Facts

Antigens interact with specific lymphocytes, inducing immune responses and immunological memory

- clonal selection: the cloning of lymphocytes into effectorcells (short-lived) and memory cells (long-lived)

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Fast Facts

The immune system exhibits the feature of self-tolerance

- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a series of glycoproteins that mark the body as “self”

- MHC provides a biological fingerprint; found in studying skin graft rejection and acceptance

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Fast Facts

In response to antigens, the immune system can mount a humoral response or a cell-mediated response

Humoral immunity: attack free antigens

- B cells form Plasma cells

- plasma cells secrete antibodies for an antigen

fast facts22
Fast Facts

Cell-mediated immunity: T cells are active against viruses and bacteria that have infected cells

- activated T cells become TH or TC; TH activate B cells that produce antibodies, TC destroy infected body cells

fact facts
Fact Facts

Homeostasis: the ability of animals to regulate their internal environment

- thermoregulation: maintaining internal temperature

- osmoregulation: regulation of the gain and loss of water

- excretion: removal of nitrogen-containing waste products

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Fact Facts

An animal’s nitrogenous wastes are correlated with its phylogeny and habitat

- Some animals will excrete ammonia directly, but many species will convert it to urea or uric acid

fact facts2
Fact Facts

The urinary system is made-up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra

- the nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys

- waste is filtered from the blood and collected as urine in each kidney

fact facts3
Fact Facts

The nephron has three functions:

- glomerular filtration of water and solutes out of the blood

- tubular reabsorption of water and molecules from the tubules back into the blood

- tubular secretion of waste products into the distal tubule

fact facts4
Fact Facts

The nervous system and hormones regulate kidney function

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): hormone primarily responsible for producing urine and regulating water balance

- an antidiuretic is any chemical that prevents excessive urine production

fact facts5
Fact Facts

Endocrine system

- helps control chemical composition and volume

- ensures successful growth and development

- gamete production, fertilization, embryo development and nourishment, and delivery

- regulates metabolism

- regulates response to environmental changes (starvation, dehydration, temperature)

fact facts6
Fact Facts

Effects of hormones

Synergistic effects: the effects of two or more hormones complement each other; response is “summation” of individual effects

Antagonistic effects: the effect of one hormone opposes the other

- ex. insulin lowers blood sugar while glucagon raises it

sample questions
Sample Questions

Feedback mechanisms are used by organisms to maintain the steady-state physiological condition known as homeostasis. Choose three of the following and for each, explain how feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

  • Blood glucose concentration
  • Calcium ion concentration
  • Body temperature
  • Osmolarity of the blood